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midterm 1 Soci 240

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University of British Columbia
SOCI 240
Silvia Bartolic

INFLUENCE: Perspectives and what drives social behaviours: Sociocultural: Evolutionary: -forces in larger social group -genetic predispositions that ex: norms, fads, social class, promoted our ancestors survival and and ethnic identity. reproduction ex: bond between parent and child Social Learning: -classically conditioned preferences, habits rewarded by others Social Cognitive: ex: imitation of behaviour we have seen -what we pay attention to; how we in others interpret and judge social situations, what we retrieve memory from Social Influence: - A change in behaviour caused by real or imagined pressure from others Conformity: - Changing one’s behaviour to match the responses or actions of others(not necessarily due to pressure) Compliance: - Changing one’s behaviour in response to a direct request The “Foot-in-the-Door” Technique - a technique which increases compliance with a large request by first getting compliance with a smaller, related request -ex: people are first asked to wear a tiny button supporting a worthy cause, later they are asked to put a billboard on their lawn Obedience: - Changing one’s behaviour in response to a directive from an authority figure Asch’s Research: - Group Influence Conclusion: people faced with strong group consensus sometimes go along even though they think the others may be wrong. Cialdini Study: - Cialdini used participant observation to study influence techniques used by successful compliance pros: Participant observation: research approach in which the researcher infiltrates the setting of interest to examine it from within These observations suggested six widely used and successful influence principles: - Reciprocation: I helped you cheat, so you have to help me next time -Commitment/Consistency: hooking someone in so it’s harder to back out. A ring, every day until the wedding it’s harder to back out and say no -Authority: authority people recommend/advertise something. 8 out of 10 people use Colgate, therefore you should! -Social Validation: going along with what everyone else is doing. Ex: joining a line because it’s long so it must be good -Scarcity: saying things are limited edition, ex: if you call in the next 5 minutes, you’ll get not 1, not 2 but 3 free pairs of boots -Liking/Friendship: bonding, making connections, ex: small talk, compliments Obedience: Milgram’s Shocking Procedure: -When people were asked to shocked a guy with a heart condition and the doctor tells participants to keep going even though at “intense shock” the man is asking to be let out and is very agitated, and then at silence, still 75% people kept shocking the man. Over 60% went all the way to the end of the shocking machine. This is an example of following authority figures (the doctor) Authority: -Authority figures can be very influential because they are often experts -Following their directions can provide a shortcut to choosing correctly Expert Power: -the capacity to influence that flows from one’s presumed wisdom or knowledge Social Validation: -using other people’s choices to check whether a choice is correct or not -people frequently look to the behaviour of similar others for social validation -the larger the number of people performing the behaviour, the more persuasive it is -ex: if 10 people say the answer is D, then that “must” be the answer Uncertainty: -In uncertain situations, people tend to rely on information provided by others Consensus and Similarity: -We are especially likely to follow the behavior of others when: -there is strong consensus among the others ex: a large group all agrees that the shorter line is the longest one Uncertainty and the Desire for Accuracy: -Robert Baron, Joseph Vandello, Bethany Brunsman asked students to choose a criminal suspect from a line -Some saw the picture so quickly it was hard to be certain about their conclusions. -Other had ample time to be certain -When were participants were certain, motivation to be accurate decreased conformity Social Norms: Codes of Conduct: -Descriptive norms: describes the perception of other’s behaviour -Injunctive norms: perceptions of what behaviors are typically approved or disapproved ex: it is inappropriate to wear a bathing suit to most classes -Norm of reciprocity: social rule that requires us to repay others with the form of behavior they have given us -The foot-in-the-door technique which works by asking for a largevi favour and then retreating to a smaller favour, the second request is typically accepted because the concession seems like a favor; this technique capitalizes on the reciprocity norm. Desire for Approval: -Certain individuals are very concerned with social approval and seem highly motivated to gain the respect of those around them -Researches have found that these individuals tend to adopt the voice of patterns of interaction partners Collective Sense of self: -individualists: define themselves in personal and individualized terms, focusing on the features that distinguish them from others, ex: I am a tall bassoon player -collectivists: define themselves in terms of the groups to which they belong, ex: I’m a Lutheran family man Resistance: -certain factors cause people to resist social influence -disrupt-then-reframe technique: a tactic that operates to increase compliance by disrupting one’s initial, resistance-laden view of a request and quickly reframing the request in more favorable terms Reactance theory: -theory that we react against threats to our freedoms by reasserting those freedoms, often by doing the opposite of what we are being pressured to do Others’ Appeal: -We are more likely to “go along to get along” when the person attempting to influence us is appealing due to: -physical attractiveness(good looking fundraisers generated 42% vs 23% -shared group membership(I’m a student, too” doubles donations from students Who’s Strong Enough to Resist Strong Group Norms? -even strong group norms(ex: about drinking or smoking) may not influence a person’s behaviour if: -the person believes he or she has the ability to resist group norms -the person doesn’t identify strongly with the group(I’m not a student, so you can’t influence me) Commitment-Initiating Tactics: **know examples for exam Foot in the door: first step: gain compliance with small request -second step is to make a related, larger request The Low-Ball Technique: first step: get an agreement to a specific arrangement -second: change the terms of agreement Bait and Switch Technique: first step: advertising crazy good deals -second: once customer is in the store, they suggest the more $$ one Labelling Technique: first step: “you’re generous” : motivates person to act consistent to self image, or: “only a jerk would abandon this poor old dog” aka, trying to get person to avoid abandoning the dog -second step: seek compliance with a label-consistent request, ex: because you’re generous...can you donate? Harnessing Existing Commitments: -certain commitments reside within a person in the form of existing values -marketers who create links between our personal values and their products will likely have us as long-term customers -cults often connect their messages to prevalent personal values(ex: peace, justice, spiritual growth) Active and Public Commitments: -one way people perceive and define themselves is through an examination of their actions -like active commitments, public commitments, especially when freely chosen, lead to consistent future behaviour because they alter self-image Group Behaviour: -group: two or more people who influence each other -collections of individuals become increasingly group like when they: -are interdependent -share a common identity -have a group structure Mere Presence of Others and Social Facilitation: -in 1897, Norman Triplett noticed that bicycle racers always turned in better times in competition than alone. Active and Public Commitments: -one way people come to perceive and define themselves is through an examination of their actions -like active commitments, public commitments especially when freely chosen, lead to consistent future behaviour because they alter self-image. -ex: if I tell everyone I know that I’ll lose 5 pounds by January, I am more likely to actually lose it than if I just told it to myself or wrote it down. Groups as Dynamic Systems: The Emergence of Norms: -dynamical system: a system(eg, group) made up of many interacting elements(eg people) that changes and evolves over time Real Groups: -real groups(eg: sororities) are distinguished from aggregations(eg: crowds of strangers on the street) by: -interdependence: groups members need each other to reach shared goals -group Identity: individuals perceive themselves as belongings Group structure: roles: are expectations held by group members for how members in particular positions ought to behave , ex: a president is ex
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