SOCI 240 Notes #1.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 240
Professor
Brett Gilley

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9/7/2011 1:00:00 PM SOCI 240 TA: [email protected] Silvia Bartolic Office location: ANSO2220 Mid-term 1 October 12 30% Mid-term 2 November 9 30% Final Exam TBA 40% Grading Guidelines 90%-100% A+ 85-89% A, 80-84% A- Required book: Symbol, selves, and social reality Textbook 3rd edition (textbook) Reading material: introduction to social interaction 3ed. Multiple choice, short answers (write enough to teach someone else), true/false Essay question in Final Extra credit: maximum of 2% 4-5 pages Observation analysis Introduce the argument of paper (thesis) Inform the reader relevant theoretical background Posted in Vista Web Introduction Way of knowing 1. Accepting authority: journalist, politicians, parents 2. Our culture: language, idiom, learn social role in family, Disney film 3. Our personal experience: education, stereotypes 4. Rationally thinking through our ideas: logical thinking, common sense, cost and benefit 5. Careful observation: scientific observation of human behavior, closer to truth. st Perspective of sociology (1 perspective) 1. the study of society 2. how society caused human action includes small groups to larger ones 3. Society is internalized through socialization Shape our attitudes and behavior 4. Our life paths are affected by our social positions SES(social-economic status), gender, ethnicity, political systems Perspective of psychology I. the study of individual II. examines how the individual is shapes by genes and the environment III.focus on traits of individuals (personality) IV. examines change and stability V. how traits/qualities influence behavior social psychology a. the study of individual‘s thoughts, feelings and behavior in social context b. from the sociological perspective -importance of social interaction -influences socialization which in turn influences perception and behavior c. from psychological perspective - importance of perception - act according to the situation - influenced by others Level of analysis SEM Bronfenbrenner‘s ecological system theory (social ecology model) The Social Ecology Model, also called Social Ecological Perspective, is a framework to examine the multiple effects and interrelatedness of social elements in an environment. SEM can provide a theoretical framework to analyze various contexts in multiple types of research and in conflict communication(Oetzel, Ting-Toomey, & Rinderle, 2006). There are several adaptations of the Social Ecological Model; however, the initial and most utilized version is Urie Bronfenbrenner‘s (1977, 1979) Ecological Systems Theory which divides factors into four levels: macro-, exo-, meso-, and micro-, which describe influences as intercultural, community, organizational, and interpersonal or individual. Traditionally many research theorists have considered only a dichotomy of perspectives, either micro (individual behavior) or macro (media or cultural influences). Bronfenbrenner‘s perspective (1979) was founded on the person, the environment, and the continuous interaction of the two. This interaction constantly evolved and developed both components. However, Bronfenbrenner realized it was not only the environment directly affecting the person, but that there were layers in between, which all had resulting impacts on the next level. His research began with the primary purpose of understanding human development and behavior. 1. Individual- actively involved in interactions with others 2. Microsystem- family, neighborhood, school 3. Mesosystem- relations between the microsystems. Between school and family 4. Exosystem (community level influence, community programs, agencies. Individual does not always have a direct role but is influenced by it. 5. Marosystem- cultural beliefs, values 6. Chronosystme: encompasses all levels (places individual in context, historical period, life stages) Focus of this course Mirco-sociology (social psychology) 1. the effects of the larger society (family, friends, neighborhood) on individuals and their interactions 2. The role of the individual in the creation and maintenance of society. 3. Central focus: socialization, identity formation. Formation of conduct Why do we engage in social interaction? a. The need to belong: fundamental human motivation is the need to belong. b. Two criteria: 1.frequent, pleasant interaction. 2. Interactions that take place in a stable, enduring framework of concern for one‘s welfare. Theoretical perspective i. learning theory (behaviorism) ii. psychoanalysis theory iii. phenomenology iv. social cognition v. social constructionism vi. symbolic interactionism vii. exchange theory/ interdependence theory 1. learn theory (behaviorism) emphasis on directly observable behavior ( rather than subject phenomena) UCS- reward or satisfaction of a drive UCR- leads to positive feelings CS- person paired with reward CR- liking of person Degree of liking affected by -number of repetitions -timing of rewards -value of rewards flaws: 1. does not take in account thought processes, who can be aware that we are being conditioned/ reinforced/ punished 2. does not take into account context in which learning occurs (experimental) competing reward/ punishments 2. Psychoanalysis theory of personality Id: source of individual drives/ instincts Universal innate Ego: looks for ways to meet organism‘s need Superego: internalization of social/cultural values Flaw: little research to back up this theory 3. Phenomenology, examines the meaning of human conduct, reality is constructed by our point of view, no single social reality theory attempts to describe the subjective perspectives of individual can only understand an individual if you understand their reality 4. Social Cognition (stereotypes, categorization, schema) cognitive short-cut focus on knowledge and thought processes people develop cognitive structures that allow for efficient processing of information, we receive more information than we can deal with cognitive shortcuts facilitate action schema- how people organize or structure their cognitions 5. Social constructionism examines existing social patterns and tries to explain how they me have developed differently reality of phenomenon is socially constructed. E.g. gender, race discrimination reveal origins of what is assumed to be natural E.g. social phobia as illness State of knowledge depends on questions asked Different questions would produce different knowledge 6. symbolic interactionism We acted based on our beliefs about the world Behavior occurs in context- individuals construct their reality not instinctual- we have the capacity to respond to our environment mental event are crucial to explanation of behavior, behavior socially coordinated able to elicit response in self and others consciousness of self- imagine response of others to us 2. Symbols and symbolic interactionism 9/7/2011 1:00:00 PM 2. Symbols and symbolic interactionism Mead is the founder of symbolic interactionism Central idea: by sharing symbols, human can adapt and survive in the environment Stages of interactional learning occur through play. Additional influences Stable human view versus emergent human view A. Stable: qualities creates in the past- causes action E.g. attachment orientation causes adult attachment/ relationship outcome B. emergent: immediate situation- causes action in the present perception of current situation- relationship outcomes Attachment theory: measure of attachment of mom leaving Qualities created in the past – causes action in the present Anxious and ambivalent, secure, avoidant, disorganized Emergent: Immediate situation- causes action in the present E.g. perception situation- causes action in the present Shibutani: the group within which the individual communicates and whose perspective is used, reference group Work, study, community, peer group, Topic, language, subgroup, Mead, society as a whole Overview of symbolic interactionism  A sign is necessary for the development of a symbol  A symbol is a sign that is agreed upon  How do we agree on the sign?  How are complex symbol systems shared?  SI focuses on the process by which the child acquires society‘s symbol system  Focuses on the process by which meanings are constructed through interaction with others and the environment  Actors think and act according to the meanings they attribute to a situation  Meanings emerge through interaction; words must be mutually understood Assumptions: 1. human behavior must be understand by the meanings of the actor 2. actor define the meaning of context and situation what human define as real has real consequence 3. individual have minds 4. society precedes the individual, society comes first further ideas: action are a result of ongoing social interaction action is a result of the present situation human are active beings Sign (natural sign) - something that stands for something else, signify a naturally occurring event in nature. Symbol: a thing/ event associated with another thing, no natural connection E.g. language, wolf Symbols are public shared Symbols can be used in the absence of the things they signify Acts: a unit of conduct/ behavior that represents the smallest meaningful unit in a stream of behavior Stages of acts Impulse: beginning when our existing activity is disturbed (phone is ringing) Perception- name objects and give our acts direction (thinking someone want to talk to you) Manipulation- concrete steps to reach out goal (pick up the telephone) Consummation- adjustment to the situation is restored and you go back to original activity or pursue a new one (new action and go on old action) Social act- social interaction that creates social objects Roles, role taking: put oneself in the place of an actor and take into account rules that actor is expected to follow Role strain: occurs when an actor does not have sufficient resources to fulfill a role. The better you perform in the role, more likely you will engage in this role. 1.The quality of ego‘s role enactment in a relationship positively affects ego's satisfaction with the relation 2.The greater the perceived clarity of role expectations, the higher the quality of role enactment 3.The more individuals perceive consensus in the expectations about a role they occupy, the less their role strain (P.97) 4. The greater the diversification of a person‘s roles, the less consensus the person will perceive in the expectation about those roles 5. The greater the diversification of roles, the greater the role strain. Reality as socially defined Our reality is social, therefore, there are social objects. Use of symbols To represent something To communicate something Symbols allow us to interpret social reality Symbols as building blocks of society Symbols and individual transformation 3.Social Exchange framework 9/7/2011 1:00:00 PM Social exchange theory = utilitarianism Central focus: motivation 1. Motivation induce behavior, thus we can understand a person‘s behavior if we understand their motivations. Interests, or values 2. Choose activities that maximize rewards Areas of focus 1. Microeconomic Theory of Family (Becker) 2. Social Psychology (Emerson, Homans, Nye) 3. Organizational Psychology (Blau) 4. Rational Choice Theory (Coleman, Hechter) Assumptions of social exchange 1. The individual is real Group phenomena and social structure is constructed by the behavior of individuals If we understand individual behavior, we understand group phenomena 2. Prediction and understanding come about by understanding the individual actor’s motivation Individuals are constrained in their choices, but within these constraints any choice can be understood by an individual‘s motivations rather than external forces (individual‘s motivation>external forces) Basic theory about choice 3. Actors are motivated by self interest Individuals seek things/relationships that are considered beneficial for themselves 4, Actors are rational Rational – to have the ability to calculate the ratio of costs and rewards Rationality is the same for all individuals Thus allows for interchangeability of actors E.g. ―consumer motivation‖ Concepts 1. Rewards and costs Reward – anything that is perceived as beneficial to the individual Cost – anything that is perceived as detrimental to the individual Negative rewards AND opportunity costs – rewards forgone Some rewards are rewarding because they have a certain amount of ‗cost‘ associated with them Reward: give something you like, take away something you dislike Positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement Punishment: take away something you like, give you something you don‘t like Positive punishment, negative punishment 2. Profit or utility Profit – the ratio of rewards to costs for a decision Calculate profit for each possible decision before choosing an action 3. Comparison level (CL) and Comparison level for alternatives (CLalt) (CL+) CL – comparison of what others in your position have in comparison to you CLalt – comparison of how well you are doing to those outside of your position in alternative positions Comparison level: comparison between the reality of situations and ideal imagination, level comparison: ideal or past, satisfaction level, in your position. Comparison level of alternative: dependence, Choices, the jobs, outside of your position, (i.e., if any viable alternative mates are available). Benefits include things such as material or financial gains, social status, and emotional comforts. Costs generally consist of sacrifices of time, money, or lost opportunities. Outcome is defined to be the difference between the benefits and the costs: OUTCOME = BENEFITS − COSTS Note that because individuals have different expectations of relationships, an individual's satisfaction with a relationship depends on more than just the outcome. For any two people with the same outcome, their level of satisfaction may differ based on their expectations. One person may not expect very large outcomes, and therefore would be more easily satisfied in relationships than someone who expects more. This notion of satisfaction is formalized as the difference between the outcome and the comparison level: SATISFACTION = OUTCOME − COMPARISON LEVEL That is to say, there are people who stay in unhappy relationships as well as those who leave happy relationships. What determines whether an individual stays in a relationship or leaves is the set of alternate relationships available. If there are many alternatives available to an individual, then that individual is less dependent on the relationship. This notion of dependence is formalized as the difference between the outcome and the "comparison level of alternatives": DEPENDENCE = OUTCOME − COMPARISON LEVEL OF ALTERNATIVES Note that the set of potential alternatives can be governed both by extrinsic and intrinsic factors. An example of an extrinsic factor would be that the person is from a sparsely populated town, and an example of an intrinsic factor would be that a person is very shy about meeting new people. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors affect the set of people available to an individual for forming an alternate relationship, and thus affect the level of dependence of the individual on his or her current relationship. 4. Rationality To understand an individual‘s choice as rational, we need to understand what they consider rewarding/costly and what is the salience (relative weight) of each Value of rewards change over time Not all rewards have equal value Marginal utili
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