SOCI240 Reading Summary 10/6/2011 3:01:00 PM
Science is a perspective
Five ways of knowing
1. We accept authority
2. From culture
3. From personal experience
4. From carefully and rationally thinking through the ideas
5. Carefully observation
Science as perspective
Science and religion are two perspectives on the universe, and each
has something important to say.
Phenomena and Noumena
To the social scientist, conscience, goodness, and evil are a result of
society, something results from socialization.
Kant’s words remind us science itself assume something about
universe. It does not study everything, because it is limited.
One of the very basic elements of science examined here is the
assumption of natural cause, which leads social science to take a
deterministic perspective to understand human behavior.
Social science as a perspective
As a perspective, it assumes that humans are part of nature, the
phenomenal world. We are able to control what causes what we think
Sociology focuses on society, psychology on the person’s
development resulting from heredity and environment, and social
psychology on the social situations we encounter. Symbolic interactionism as perspective 10/6/2011 3:01:00 PM
Interaction: five central ideas
1. the human being must be understand as a social person. It is
ongoing constant lifelong social interactionism, which lead us to do
what we do.
2. the human being must be understood as thinking being
3. humans define the situation they are in.
4. the cause of human action is the result of what is occurring in our
5. Human beings are described as active being in relation to their
To understand human action. We must forces social interaction,
human thinking, definition