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SOCI 100 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Collective Consciousness Society, Scientific Revolution, Social Conflict Theory


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 100
Professor
Chris Mac Kenzie
Study Guide
Midterm

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MAY 9
Intro
- Society built on symbols and culture constantly changing
- Almost all college/uni, women 60% earn 25% less than men with same credentials, job
- Soci does “myth bustinglooking at social world and asking “does that in fact hold up the scrutiny?”
- Soci not neutral disciplinepolitically left discipline (everyone should have same rights, make some money)
- Soci goal= improve government by looking at society trends
- Soci is the study of the obvious and the uncovering of inconvenient facts (things we don’t really care/want to know)
- Soci is the business of myth busting
- We all have opinions but we should have informed opinions
- Canadian dreamequal opportunity society
Concepts:
- There are regular and observable patterns in human social life
o If you are attending a Canadian uni, your classmates probably come from families in the upper half of the income
ladder this says: where you are on the income ladder determines your success
o If you attend a community college, classmates probably come from more modest means
o *there are always exceptions! We focus on these exceptions but sometimes we overdo itsociety usually follows
patterns
o Patterns shaped by frameworks of beliefs and rituals (norms, symbols)
o “we carry society around with us”eventually, all symbols/rituals become permanent (know what to do in any
classroom)= social structures/social forces
- What we call social forces/structures shape our behaviour
o 90% of ppl marry, half by the time they are 30, half of those will divorce you might/might not want to get
married by the social forces to getting married is very strong
o With a bachelor’s degree, you will earn 25% more than if you have a college diploma, with a master’s/doctorate
that will increase by another 38 & 44%
- social patterns change through time and change through availability of technology
o once you have children, you/your spouse will likely choose to be surgically sterilized to prevent further
childbirthssterilization= viable solution nowadays because of tech
Sociology wants to understand:
1. how these patterns/social forces come into existence
2. what effects (+ve/-ve) these patterns have on our livesproblem: effects are different for different groups/ppl (really +ve
for some and really ve for others)
3. how these social structures can be changed to improve the lives of citizens
Summary:
- society created through our use of symbols, traditions and rituals
- we use language and behaviour to create these symbols traditions and rituals (eg. google it)
- through this creation, we give meaning to these symbols, traditions and rituals
- the more we respect these belief systems, norms/values, the more permanent they become in society
- these symbols, traditions, rituals, norms and beliefs give order to society and a regular pattern to our lives
- these patterns are what sociologists call social forces/structures
Concerns:
- we are born into a society where these forces/structures already exist and seem permanent
o when born into society, everything’s already there (school systems, families) so seem permanent
- this makes us view norms, beliefs, traditions and rituals as natural and normalmakes social change really hard
- **permanent doesn’t mean natural nor does it define normal
Sociological imagination
- The ability to see the relationship between individual experiences (why can’t he find a job?)and the larger society (what
made this guy lazy? Economic recession
- Society= group with whom they share a culture/territory
- Social location= where people located in particular society
- C.Wright Mills: “personal troubles become public issues”
- You don’t have society without the individual and vice versa
- Sociologists look for the strange in the familiar
Macrostructures:
- Patterns of social relations that are beyond our daily associations and lives
- Institutions, education, political systems, peer groups, culture, nations, countries
Microstructures:
- We all have roles: duties/responsibilities/expectations assigned to them
- Patterns of intimate social relations (face-face interactions)that we engage in daily

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- Within each macrostructure are roles (microstructures)what keeps society going is the interactions between
microstructuresif we don’t behave in certain ways, social structures stop existingsociety stops existing if we don’t
interact according to our roles
- The roles we play become permanent
o Crisis of masculinity because women starting to make more money (roles are changing)
o In other words we create society, but we’re also changing it so not permanent
MAY 11
- When we look at society, take it for granted that it has always been there perceive institutions and things that make up
society as natural/permanent
- Review: macrostructures= schools ,institutions, (smaller) peer groups, subcultures, family within each institution,
microstructures= small roles (in a family, mom, dad etc = roles); we play diff rolesconstantly jumping between
institutions
o **What keeps society going is the interaction between roles
- Definitions/descriptions of soci usually include ideas that:
o Society exists independent of the ppl who live in it and make it up
o There are social structures that exist in and make up societybuilt upon our beliefs
o These social structures both limit and expand the individual freedom of ppl provide opportunities
o Ppl generate and then perpetuate social structures through their interactions
o **it is the relationship between ppl’s interactions with one another and their social environment (structures)
which is the proper subject matter for sociology
- Social structures not built in a neutral waybuilt to provide access to resources (everything from food, shelter to good
education, job, quality of life, health care) for some ppl and not othersaccess to resources not equally distributed
- Soci purpose: understanding patterns within society
- Normvaluepermanent...
o eg. public education very new
permanence/naturalness changes across time (*assumption)
History
- Origins= enlightenment, industrial revolution, imperialism (culture), success of natural science
- Scientific revolution: Newton//Through observation, empirical analysis, can see the natural world
- Also starting to challenge old philosophies about social orderstarted to change social categories (childhood, teenagers)
o Started living longer so category of childhood became possible
o Society changed in terms of how to make money and do workrealized we need a period where we taught kids
to read and write
- Key ideas/changes during period of enlightenment (1600-1700s):
o Enlightenment philosophy= human growth and development of society occurs when tradition gives way to
reason
reason and science contribute to the ability of people to comprehend, change and perhaps control
society/world
o That individuals have certain inalienable rights
o The centralizing of governmental power (create civil government) if we’re going to have rights
o The reformation and centralization of educationrealized we need an educated population because of type of
work they need to be doing
o The growth of bureaucracies and administrative professionalsstart of service sector economy
o The diminishing importance of religion, tradition and customsdrop off in using religious foundations and beliefs
to structure social policies not drop off in religious people
o The idea that inequality is not a natural thing (ARGUMENT OF SOCI)
There is still difference (faster people, slower people)inequality= difference politicized (because you
are different, not allowed education, job, marry etc.)
o The idea that society is a “thing” that can be studied
- Social changes of the enlightenment: (1700s-1850s)
o Economic
Up until 1700s, we worked for ourselves (self-employed)
After enlightenment, started working for other pplbecame production-based economymass
production
o Industrial technology
Harnessing energy
Jobs changed
o Urban growth
Living in cities not natural/permanent20th century phenomenon
Happened because cities had jobs so moved away from the countryside
o Political change
Became functioning democracies
- Social pathologiesthese changes created all sorts of problems

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o Apply science to cure people, trees, animalsdo the same to societysociety as “ill”, as a “thing” and cure it
accordingly
- Enlightenment thinkers
o Common view: Jean Condocet
Supported equal rights for women
Strongly opposed slavery
Called for universal suffrage
Endorsed the separation of church from state
Freedom of opinion
Development of social welfare policies
o Everything above still being fought oversocial change takes a long time
- Sociology emerged because the time was right
- Soci was from the outset a way to understand, evaluate and prescribe
Auguste Comte (late 1700- 1800s)
- Wrote first soci book- “The course of positive philosophy”
- Soci= the science of society
- Positivism= TOK based on experience alone, not metaphysical speculation
o Humans understanding= religious then methaphys stage of abstract principles then +ve/scientific knowledge
- Societies go through times of calm, revolutionary phase (the enlightenment, scientific revolution)
- The three stages- Every society develops and evolves by passing through 3 periods: (like sigmoidal curve)
o Theological- military military to maintain social order
o Metaphysical- judicialenlightenment, scientific revolutiontumultuous phase
Metaphysical= bow going on between religious beliefs or common law
Temporary phase because extremely volatile (period of revolution
Judicial= law/court to keep people in order
o Scientific-industrialmust be logical, empirical proof
Industrial: what’s going to keep us going as society doing what we’re supposed to do isn’t threat of
military, or go to court but our industrialized societywill become society of professionals
This would last a long long time
- Social statics- The study of social structures, its elements and their relations
- Social dynamics- the study of social progress and change
Emile Durkheim (1850s-early 1900s)
- Got soci course introduced into universityreason for the existence of the discipline of soci
- Enlightenment thinker (early 1900s)
- Looked at French Revolution, scientific revolutionresults weren’t that great, why?
- Optimist- believed in the modern society
- Problems: had to prove that discipline had something unique to offer; how is it different from other disciplines?
- Study on suicide
o Although it is an individual act, the causes are eminently social
o Egoistic suicide= more freedom, weaker social ties (industrial societies), sense of not belonging
o Altruistic suicide= strong social bonds
o Anomic suicide= based on greed, unattainable goals
o Biological aspects but very smallsocial factors very large
o All reasons had one thing in common: lack of connection to society
o Social causes leads to depression leads to suicide
o Anomie= sense of disconnect from society/group
o At that time, suicide rates one of the few things that had statistics could do cross-cultural analysis
When looking at stats, looked at people social profiles
o Patterns:
Higher rates: men, protestants, wealthy, educated, single
Lower rates: women, Catholics, poor, less educated, married
Why? Connections (Women more connected- look after children, poor work hard every day and have
connections to do that, less educated have to work harder no time to get bigger picture of the world,
single less connections
o Durkheim would be surprised by modern youth suicide (comes from sense of disconnection) and senior suicide
(lack of social concern for seniors make them feel disconnected)
MAY 16
- Psychologists focus on personality, sociologists focus on change in social structure/development
- Karl Marx (1818-1883)= exploitation/alienation
o Friend introduced to modern industrialized society
o Problem: capitalismdidn’t generation fair distribution of resourcespeople who are getting resources getting
because of exploitationit’s not the people, it’s the social structure
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