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BHR 221
Mike Teed

Chapter 7 I. What Is a Group? A group consists of two or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal. Interaction is the most basic aspect of a group as it suggests who is in the group and who is not. Groups exert tremendous influence on us. They are social mechanisms by which we acquire many beliefs, values, attitudes, and behaviours. Formal work groups are established by organizations to facilitate the achievement of organizational goals. The most common formal group consists of a manager and those employees who report to that manager. Informal groups are groups that emerge naturally in response to the common interests of organizational members. Informal groups can either help or hurt an organization, depending on their norms for behaviour. II. Group Development While employees often know each other before new groups are formed, simple familiarity does not replace the necessity for team development. A. Typical Stages of Group Development Leaders and trainers have observed that many groups develop through a series of stages over time. Each stage presents the members with a series of challenges they must master in order to achieve the next stage. These stages are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Forming. Group members try to orient themselves by “testing the waters”. Storming. Confrontation and criticism occur as members determine whether they will go along with the way the group is developing. Norming. Members resolve the issues that provoked the storming, and they develop social consensus. Performing. The group devotes its energies toward task accomplishment. Adjourning. Rites and rituals that affirm the group’s previous successful development are common. Members often exhibit emotional support for each other. B. Punctuated Equilibrium When groups have a specific deadline by which to complete some problem-solving task, we often observe a very different development sequence from that described above. Thepunctuated equilibrium model is a model of group development that describes how groups with deadlines are affected by their first meetings and crucial midpoint transitions. Phase 1. Phase 1 begins with the first meeting and continues until the midpoint in the group’s existence. Although it gathers information and holds meetings, the group makes little visible progress toward the goal. Midpoint Transition. The midpoint transition occurs at almost exactly the halfway point in time toward the group’s deadline. The transition marks a change in the group’s approach, and how the group manages it is critical for the group to show progress. Phase 2. Decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2. It concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how outsiders will evaluate the product. III. Group Structure and Its Consequences Group structure refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group, the way a group is “put together.” The most basic structural characteristics along which groups vary are size and member diversity. A. Group Size Although the smallest possible group would consist of two people, most work groups, including task forces and committees usually have between three and twenty members. Size and Satisfaction. In general, members of larger groups report less satisfaction with group membership than those who find themselves in smaller groups. Increased potential for conflict, reduced opportunity for participation, inhibition, and inability to identify contributions to the group are among the reasons for this phenomenon. Size and Performance. Different types of tasks are performed by groups where performance could depend upon the type of task and the number of individuals involved. For some tasks, like moving a heavy rock, the potential performance of the group increases with group size. These are additive tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the performance of individual group members. Other tasks, like searching for a single error in a complicated computer program, also may show performance gains as group size increases, but that is because the chance of including a crucial problem solver is greater. Disjunctive tasks are tasks in which performance is dependent on the performance of the best group member. However, as groups get larger, performance may also decrease as a function of process losses. Process losses are group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of motivating and coordinating larger groups. Thus, actual performance = potential performance – process losses. Finally, group performance on conjunctive tasks, like assembly line work, decreases as group size increases. Conjunctive tasks are tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member. B. Diversity of Group Membership Research suggests that heterogeneous or diverse groups have a more difficult time communicating and becoming cohesive, so group development takes longer. Once developed, diversity has little impact on performance and sometimes performance is better on tasks that require creativity and problem solving. C. Group Norms Social norms are collective expectations that members of social units have regarding the behaviour of each other. They are codes of conduct that specify what individuals should do and not do and standards against which we evaluate the appropriateness of behaviour. All of us are influenced by norms which regulate many of our daily activities. Norm Development. Norms develop to provide regularity and predictability to behaviour. They develop to regulate behaviours that are considered at least marginally important. Individuals comply with these norms because the norms often correspond to privately held attitudes. Some Typical Norms. There are different types of norms in organizations which affect the behaviour of members. Norms that seem to crop up in most organizations and affect the behaviour of members include the following: • Dress norms. Social norms frequently dictate the kind of clothing people wear to work. • Reward allocation norms. There are at least four norms that might dictate how rewards, such as pay, promotions, and informal favours, could be allocated in organizations: equity, equality, reciprocity, and social responsibility. • Performance norms. The performance of organizational members might be as much a function of social expectations as it is of inherent ability, personal motivation, or technology. D. Roles Roles are positions in a group that have a set of expected behaviours attached to them. Roles represent “packages” of norms that apply to particular group members. In organizations, there are two basic kinds of roles. First, there are designated or assigned roles that are formally prescribed by an organization to facilitate task achievement. Assigned roles indicate "who does what." and "who can tell others what to do." In addition, there are also emergent roles which are roles that develop naturally to meet the social-emotional needs of group members or to assist in formal job accomplishment. Role Ambiguity. Role ambiguity exists when the goals of one's job or the methods of performing it are unclear. Ambiguity might be characterized by confusion about how performance is evaluated, how good performance can be achieved, or what the limits of one’s authority and responsibility are. A variety of elements can lead to ambiguity. • Organizational factors. Some roles seem inherently ambiguous because of their function in the organization. • The role sender. Role senders might have unclear expectations of a focal person. • The focal person. Even role expectations that are clearly developed and sent might not be fully digested by the focal person. The practical consequences of role ambiguity include job stress, dissatisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, and intentions to quit. Managers can reduce role ambiguity by providing clear performance expectations and performance feedback. Role Conflict. Role conflict exists when an individual is faced with incompatible role expectations. There are several different types of role conflict. • Intrasender role conflict occurs when a single role sender provides incompatible role expectations to a role occupant. • Intersender role conflict occurs when two or more role senders provide a role occupant with incompatible expectations. • Interrole conflict occurs when several roles held by a role occupant involve incompatible expectations. • Person-role conflict occurs when role demands call for behaviour that is incompatible with the personality or skills of the role occupant. The most consistent consequences of role conflict are job dissatisfaction, stress reactions, lowered organizational commitment, and turnover intentions. Managers can help prevent role conflict by avoiding self-contradictory messages, conferring with other role senders, being sensitive to multiple role demands, and fitting the right person to the right role. E. Status Status is the rank, social position, or prestige accorded to group members. It represents the group’s evaluation of a member. Organizations have both formal and informal status systems. Formal Status Systems. The formal status system represents management’s attempt to publicly identify those people who have higher status than others. This is accomplished by the application of status symbols. Status symbols are tangible indicators of status. Status symbols might include titles, particular working relationships, the pay package, the work schedule, and the physical working environment. The criteria for achieving formal organizational status includes seniority in one’s work group and one’s assigned role in the organization. Informal Status Systems. Informal status symbols also exist in organizations and can operate just as effectively. Sometimes, job performance is a basis for the acquisition of informal status. So a good hitter or a good performer will be accorded status, although status symbols might be lacking. Consequences of Status Differences. Status affects the ways in which people communicate with each other. Most people like to communicate with others at their own status or higher, rather than with people who are below them. As a result, communication is likely to move up the status hierarchy in organizations. As well, higher status people do more talking and have more influence. Reducing Status Barriers. Although status differences can be powerful motivators, status differences also tend to inhibit the free flow of communication in organizations and can make it more difficult to foster a culture of teamwork and cooperation. As a result, many organizations are doing away with status symbols such as executive dining rooms, and reserved parking in an attempt to foster a culture of teamwork and cooperation across the ranks. The use of e-mail has also been found to level status barriers, thus facilitating communication between people at all levels of the organization. IV. Group Cohesiveness Group cohesiveness is a critical property of groups. Cohesive groups are those that are especially attractive to their members. Members are especially desirous of staying in the group and tend to describe the group in favourable terms. A. Factors Influencing Cohesiveness There are several important factors which might make one group more cohesive than others. Threat and Competition. External threat and competition can force members to work together when group goals are in danger. External threats to survive have often resulted in greater cohesiveness. Success. When a group accomplishes a goal, members feel pride and tend to become more cooperative with each other as the group becomes more attractive to its members. Member Diversity. Task accomplishment will be a more important factor than member similarities in determining cohesiveness. Size. Larger groups have a more difficult time in becoming and staying cohesive. Toughness of Initiation. Groups that are tough to get into are more attractive than those that are easy to join. B. Consequences of Cohesiveness There are a number of consequences of group cohesiveness. More Participation in Group Activities. Because cohesive groups are attractive to their members, they should be especially motivated to participate in group activities. More Conformity. Because they are so attractive and coordinated, cohesive groups are well equipped to supply information, rewards, and punishment to individuals. Thus, highly cohesive groups are in a superb position to induce conformity to group norms. More Success. Cohesiveness contributes to group success. In general, cohesive groups are good at achieving their goals. That is, cohesive groups tend to be successful in accomplishing what they wish to accomplish. In a good labour relations climate, group cohesiveness should foster high productivity. In a climate marked by tension and disagreement, cohesive groups might pursue goals that result in low productivity. Thus, cohesive groups tend to produce more or less than non-cohesive groups. In addition, there is less variability in the productivity of members of cohesive groups. V. Social Loafing Social loafing is the tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task. It is one of the reasons for process losses in large groups and takes two forms. In the free rider effect, people lower their effort to get a free ride at the expense of other group members. This is the phenomenon of others not pulling their weight on a group project. In the sucker effect, people lower their effort because of the feeling that others are free riding. That is, they are trying to restore equity in the group. There are a number of ways to counteract social loafing. • Make individual performance more visible. The simplest way to do this is to keep the group small. • Make sure that the work is interesting. If the work is involving, intrinsic motivation should counteract social loafing. • Increase feelings of indispensability. Training and the status system can provide group members with unique inputs. • Increase performance feedback. Increased feedback from the boss, peers, and customers should encourage self-correction. • Reward group performance. Members are more likely to monitor and maximize their own performance when the group receives rewards for effectiveness. VI. What Is a Team? Some writers have suggested that a “team” is different from a “group” because in a team a synergy develops such that the group’s efforts are greater than the sum of its parts. However, the term “team” is more generally used to describe “groups” in organizational settings and the terms can be used interchangeably. Many organizations now use team- based work arrangements in an attempt to improve efficiency, quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, and/or the speed of production. VII. Designing Effective Work Teams According to J. Richard Hackman, a work group is effective when (1) its physical or intellectual output is acceptable to management and to the other parts of the organization that use this output, (2) group members’ needs are satisfied rather than frustrated by the group, and (3) the group experience enables members to continue to work together. Group effectiveness occurs when high effort is directed toward the group’s task, when great knowledge and skill are directed toward the task, and when the group adopts sensible strategies for accomplishing its goals. A. Self-Managed Work Teams Self-managed work teams are work groups that have the opportunity to do challenging work under reduced supervision. The general idea is that the group regulates much of its own members’ behaviour. Critical to the success of self-managed teams are the nature of the task, the composition of the group, and various support mechanisms. Tasks for Self-Managed Teams. Tasks for self-managed teams should be complex and challenging and require high interdependence among team members for task accomplishment. Group members adopt roles that will make the group effective, not ones that are simply related to a narrow specialty. Composition of Self-Managed Teams. A fast answer to how organizations should design effective self-managed teams is that they should be stable, small and smart. The composition of self-managed teams needs to consider a number of factors. • Stability. Self-managed teams require considerable interaction and high cohesiveness among their members. To achieve this, group membership must be fairly stable. • Size. The team should be as small as is feasible. The goal is to keep coordination problems and social loafing to a minimum. • Expertise. Team members should have a high level of expertise about the task at hand. The group as a whole should be very knowledgeable about the task. All members should possess some degree of social skills. • Diversity. The team should have members who are similar enough to work well together with enough diversity to bring a variety of perspectives and skills to the task. Supporting Self-Managed Teams. A number of support factors can assist self-managed teams in becoming and staying effective. • Training. To insure the effectiveness of self-managed teams, organizations need to provide extensive training in areas such as technical skills, social skills, language skills, and business training. • Rewards. The general rule here is to try to tie rewards to team accomplishment rather than to individual accomplishment while still providing team members with some individual performance feedback. • Management. The most effective managers in a self-management environment encourage groups to observe, evaluate, and reinforce their own task behaviour. Research has found that the task characteristics are related to group effectiveness. In terms of group composition, teams perceived as too large for their tasks were rated as less effective than teams perceived as an appropriate size or too small. Managerial support and group processes have been found to be the best predictors of group effectiveness. Overall, research has shown improvements in team productivity, quality, customer satisfaction, and safety following the implementation of self-managed work teams. B. Cross-Functional Teams Another kind of team that contemporary organizations are using with increasing frequency is the cross-functional team. Cross-functional teams bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design, or deliver a product or service. The general goals of cross-functional teams include some combination of innovation, speed, and quality that come from early coordination among the various specialties. Principles for Effectiveness. Research has discovered a number of factors that contribute to the effectiveness of cross-functional teams. • Composition. All relevant specialties must be part of the team, including labour representatives or suppliers where appropriate. • Superordinate goals. Conflict may sometimes arise from the colliding cultures of different functions. Superordinate goals are attractive outcomes that can only be achieved by collaboration. They help to override potential functional level conflicts. • Physical proximity. Team members must be located close to one another to facilitate informal contact. • Autonomy. Cross-functional teams need some autonomy from the larger organization, and functional specialties need some authority to commit their function to project decisions. • Rules and procedures. Some basic decision procedures must be laid down to prevent anarchy. • Leadership. Because of the potential for conflict, cross-functional team leaders need especially strong people skills in addition to task expertise. C. Virtual Teams Virtual teams are work groups that use technology to communicate and collaborate across time, space, and organizational boundaries. Along with their reliance on computer and electronic technology, the primary feature of these teams is the lack of face-to-face contact between team members due to geographic dispersion. Advantages of Virtual Teams. Virtual teams have a number of advantages. • Around-the-clock work. Globally, using a virtual team can create a 24-hour team that never sleeps. • Reduced travel time and cost. Virtual teaming reduces travel costs associated with face-to-face meetings. • Larger talent pool. Virtual teams allow companies to expand their potential labour markets and to go after the best people, even if they have no interest in relocating. Challenges of Virtual Teams. Virtual teams also face several challenges. • Miscommunication. The loss of face-to-face communication presents certain risks for virtual teams. • Trust. Trust is difficult to develop between virtual team members. • Isolation. The lack of casual interactions with co-workers can lead to team members having feelings of isolation and detachment. • High costs. Savings in areas such as travel must be weighed against the costs of cutting-edge technology. Initial set-up costs can be substantial. • Management issues. For managers, virtual teams create new challenges in terms of dealing with employees who are no longer in view. A study of 65 virtual teams at Sabre Inc., concluded that trust was still possible through team member responsiveness, consistency, and reliability. Training and team building exercises were also found to be helpful to build trust and clarify communication standards. Virtual communication reduced instances of stereotyping, discrimination, personality conflicts, and the formation of cliques. Lessons Concerning Virtual Teams. A number of lessons are beginning to emerge about what managers must do or keep watch for when developing virtual teams. • Recruitment. Choose team members carefully in terms of attitude and personality. Find people with good interpersonal skills, not just technical skills. • Training. Invest in training for both technical and interpersonal skills. • Personalization. Encourage team members to get to know each other, either through informal communication using technology or by arranging face-to-face meetings. • Goals and ground rules. Virtual team leaders should define goals clearly, set rules for communication standards and responses, and provide feedback to keep team members informed of progress and the big picture. VIII. A Word of Caution: Teams as a Panacea Switching from a traditional structure to a team-based configuration is not a cure-all for an organization’s problems. Many organizations have rushed to deploy teams with little planning, often resulting in confusion and contradictory signals to employees. Good planning and continuing support are necessary for the effective use of teams. Chapter 8 I. Social Influence in Organizations People often feel or act differently from how they would as independent operators as a result of social influence. This is because in many social settings, and especially in groups, people are highly dependent on others. This dependence sets the stage for influence to occur. A. Information Dependence and Effect Dependence All of us need information from others and we are frequently highly dependent on others for information about the adequacy and appropriateness of our behaviour, thoughts, and feelings. Information dependence refers to our reliance on others for information about how to think, feel, and act. It gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts, feelings, and actions via the signals they send to us. Individuals are also dependent on the effects of their behaviour as determined by the rewards and punishments provided by others. This effect dependence is the reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment. It occurs because the group has a vested interest in how individual members think and act, and the member desires the approval of the group. II. Social Influence in Action One of the most obvious consequences of information and effect dependence is the tendency for group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group. A. Motives for Social Conformity Conformity is the tendency for group members to conform to the norms that have been established by the group. There are a number of different motives for conformity. Compliance. Members might conform because of compliance which is the simplest, most direct motive for conformity to group norms. It occurs because a member wishes to acquire rewards from the group and avoid punishment. As such, it primarily involves effect dependence. Identification. Some individuals conform because they find other supporters of the norm attractive. In this case, the individual identifies with these supporters and sees himself or herself as similar to them. Identification as a motive for conformity is often revealed by an imitation process in which established members serve as models for the behaviour of others. Internalization. Some conformity to norms occurs because individuals have truly and wholly accepted the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm. Internalization occurs when individuals have truly and wholly accepted the beliefs, values, and attitudes that underlie the norm. B. The Subtle Power of Compliance In some cases, individuals conform to norms which they do not support. Much of this occurs because of social pressures and the desire to please others. But compliance often sets the stage for the more complete involvement with organizational norms and roles implicit in the stages of identification and internalization. III. Organizational Socialization Socialization is the process by which people learn the norms and roles that are necessary to function in a group or organization. Socialization methods (realistic job previews, employee orientation programs, socialization tactics, mentoring, proactive tactics) influence immediate or proximal socialization outcomes such as learning, task mastery, social integration, role conflict, role ambiguity, and person–job and person–organization fit. Proximal outcomes lead to distal or longer-term outcomes such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification, organizational citizenship behaviour, job performance, stress, and turnover. An important goal of socialization is to help newcomers assimilate and fit into the organization. Person-job fit refers to the match between an employee’s knowledge, skills, and abilities and the requirements of a job. Person-organization fit refers to the match between an employee’s personal values and the values of an organization. Research has found that both P-J and P-O fit are strongly related to the work adjustment of new hires. Socialization is an ongoing process by virtue of continuous interaction with others in the workplace. However, socialization is most potent during periods of membership transition, such as when one joins a new organization. A. Stages of Socialization Since organizational socialization is an ongoing process, it is useful to divide this process into three stages. One of these stages occurs before entry, another immediately follows entry, and the last occurs after one has been a member for some period of time. Anticipatory Socialization. A considerable amount of socialization occurs even before a person joins an organization. This process is called anticipatory socialization. However, not all anticipatory socialization is accurate and useful for the new member. Encounter. In the encounter stage, the new recruit encounters the day-to-day reality of organizational life. At this stage, the organization and its experienced members are looking for an acceptable degree of conformity to organizational norms and the gradual acquisition of appropriate role behaviour. Recruits are interested in having their personal needs and expectations fulfilled. Role Management. Having survived the encounter stage and acquired basic role behaviours, the member's attention shifts to fine-tuning and actively managing his or her role in the organization. This stage is referred to as role management. The role occupants might now begin to internalize the norms and values that are prominent in the organization. B. Unrealistic Expectations and the Psychological Contract People join organizations with expectations about what membership will be like and what they expect to receive in return for their efforts. Unfortunately, these expectations are often unrealistic and obligations between new members and organizations are often breached. Unrealistic Expectations. Although people have expectations about their jobs in organizations, many such expectations held by entering members are inaccurate and often unrealistically high. At times, the media is responsible. At other times corporate recruiters paint rosy pictures in order to attract job candidates to the organization. Psychological Contract. When people join organizations, they also have ideas about what they expect to receive from the organization and what they plan to give the organization in return. Such perceptions form what is known as the psychological contract and refers to beliefs held by employees concerning their reciprocal obligations between them and their organization. Unfortunately, psychological contract breach appears to be a common occurrence in organizations. Perceptions of psychological contract breach occur when an employee perceives that his or her organization has failed to fulfill one or more promised obligations of the psychological contract. This often results in feelings of anger and betrayal and can have a negative effect on employees’ work attitudes and behaviour. IV. Methods of Socialization Organizations differ in the extent to which they make use of other organizations to help socialize their members. The strategy of reliance on external agents is often used by organizations to help socialize their members. Thus, hospitals rely on medical schools to socialize doctors, while business firms rely on business schools to send them recruits who think and act in a business-like manner. On the other hand, organizations such as police forces, the military, and religious institutions are less likely to rely on external socializers. Organizations that handle their own socialization are especially interested in maintaining the continuity and stability of job behaviours over a period of time. Thus, organizations differ in terms of who does the socializing, how it is done, and how much is done. A. Realistic Job Previews Realistic job previews provide a balanced, realistic picture of the positive and negative aspects of the job to job applicants. When used properly, these previews can reduce unrealistic expectations on the part of new organizational members, reduce turnover, and improve job performance. B. Employee Orientation Programs Employee orientation programs are designed to introduce new employees to their job, the people they will be working with, and the organization. The main content of most orientation programs consists of health and safety issues, terms and conditions of employment, and information about the organization, such as its history and traditions. Another purpose of new employee orientation programs is to convey and form the psychological contract, and to teach newcomers how to cope with stressful work situations. Orientation programs can have a lasting effect on the job attitudes and behaviours of new hires and they can also lower turnover. C. Socialization Tactics Socialization tactics refer to the manner in which organizations structure the early work experiences of new members. There are six socialization tactics that vary on a bipolar continuum and include: Collective versus Individual Tactics. A number of new members are socialized as a group, going through the same experiences and facing the same challenges. Formal versus Informal Tactics. Formal tactics involve segregating newcomers from regular organizational members and providing them with formal learning experiences during the period of socialization. Sequential versus Random Tactics. The sequential tactic involves a fixed sequence of steps leading to the assumption of the role, compared with the random tactic in which there is an ambiguous or changing sequence. Fixed versus Variable Tactics. Fixed socialization consists of a timetable for the assumption of the role. Serial versus Disjunctive Tactics. The serial tactic refers to a process where newcomers are socialized by experienced members of the organization. Investiture versus Divestiture Tactics. Divestiture tactics refer to what is also known as debasement and hazing. Organizations put new members through a series of experiences that are designed to humble them and strip away some of their initial self-confidence. Institutionalized versus Individualized Socialization. The six socialization tactics can be grouped into two separate patterns of socialization. Institutionalized socialization consists of collective, formal, sequential, fixed, serial, and investiture tactics. Individualized socialization consists of individual, informal, random, variable, disjunctive, and divestiture tactics. Institutionalized socialization reflects a more structured program of socialization and reduces newcomers’ feelings of uncertainty. Individualized socialization reflects a relative absence of structure and so the early work experiences of newcomers are somewhat uncertain. The tactics can also been distinguished in terms of the context in which information is presented to new hires, the content provided to new hires, and the social aspects of socialization. Institutionalized socialization tactics are effective in promoting organizational loyalty, esprit de corps, and uniformity of behaviour among those being socialized. When socialization is individualized, new members are more likely to take on the particular characteristics and style of their socializers. Therefore, uniformity is less likely under individualized socialization. Research Evidence. Institutionalized socialization tactics have been found to be related to proximal outcomes, such as lower role ambiguity and conflict and more positive perceptions of P–J and P–O fit, as well as more distal outcomes, such as more positive job satisfaction and organizational commitment and lower stress and turnover. In addition, the institutionalized socialization tactics result in a more custodial role orientation in which new hires accept the status quo and the requirements of their tasks and roles. The social tactics (serial-disjunctive and investiture-divestiture) have been found to be the most strongly related to socialization outcomes. D. Mentoring A mentor is an experienced or more senior person in the organization who gives a junior person special attention, such as giving advice and creating opportunities to assist them during the early stages of his or her career. To be effective, mentors must perform career and psychosocial functions. Career Functions of Mentoring. A mentor provides a number of career enhancing benefits. The career functions of mentoring include: • Sponsorship. The mentor might nominate the apprentice for advantageous transfers and promotions. • Exposure and visibility. The mentor might provide opportunities to work with key people and see other parts of the organization. • Coaching and feedback. The mentor might suggest work strategies and identify strengths and weaknesses in the apprentice’s performance. • Developmental assignments. Challenging work assignments a mentor can provide will help develop key skills and knowledge that are crucial to career progress. Psychosocial Functions of Mentoring. Mentors can also provide certain psychosocial functions that are helpful in developing the apprentice's self-confidence, sense of identity, and ability to cope with emotional traumas that can damage a person’s effectiveness. These include: • Role-modeling. This provides a set of attitudes, values, and behaviours for the junior person to imitate. • Acceptance and confirmation. The mentor can also provide encouragement and support and help the apprentice gain self-confidence. • Counseling. This provides an opportunity to discuss personal concerns and anxieties concerning career prospects, work-family conflicts, and so on. Research Evidence. Mentored individuals have been found to have higher objective career outcomes (compensation and the number of promotions), as well as higher subjective outcomes (greater satisfaction with one’s job and career and greater career commitment), and they were more likely to believe that they will advance in their career. Mentoring tends to be more strongly related to subjective than the objective career outcomes. The psychosocial function is more strongly related to satisfaction with the mentoring relationship while the career function is more strongly related to compensation and advancement. Both functions are just as important in generating positive attitudes toward one’s job and career. Formal Mentoring Programs. Formal mentoring programs have been found to be just as beneficial as informal relationships. Formal mentoring programs are most effective when the mentor and protégé have input into the matching process and when they receive training prior to the mentoring relationship, especially training that is perceived to be of a high quality. Women and Mentors. Women face a particular problem when dealing with mentors. As women in executive positions remain in relative short supply, there are fewer female role models and most possible mentors are men. Men are often less helpful as mentors in such relationships as they have little experience with women in roles other than wife, mother, or daughter. Mixed gender mentoring relationships can also be undermined by rumors of sexual behaviour and research demonstrates that the often important informal after-work social activities that normally build such relationships are much less in evidence for that reason. Because of these concerns, the prospective female apprentice faces more constraints than her male counterpart. This is problematic given that mentoring is even more critical to women’s career success then it is to men’s. Race, Ethnicity, and Mentoring. Limited racial and ethnic diversity at the top of organizations similarly constrains the mentoring opportunities available to younger minority group employees. Minority apprentices in cross-ethnic group mentoring relationships tend to report less assistance compared with those with same-race mentors. Such relationships tend to focus more on the career functions of mentoring and provide less psychosocial support functions than in same-race dyads. E. Proactive Socialization: What Newcomers Can Do To Socialize Themselves Proactive socialization refers to the process in which newcomers play an active role in their own socialization through the use of a number of proactive socialization tactics. One of the most important tactics that newcomers can employ is to request feedback and seek information. Other proactive tactics include socializing, networking, building relationships with co-workers and members of the organization, negotiating job changes, career planning, and finding a mentor. These tactics have been found to have a positive influence on newcomers’ socialization. However, newcomers rely primarily on observation followed by interpersonal sources. Supervisors are the information source most strongly related to positive socialization outcomes. One of the primary goals of organizational socialization is for individuals to define themselves in terms of the organization and what it is perceived to represent. This is known asorganizational identification and reflects an individual’s learning and acceptance of an organization’s culture. It is positively related to work attitudes, intentions, and behaviours. V. Organizational Culture To a large degree, the course of socialization both depends on and shapes the culture of the organization. A. What is Organizational Culture? Organizational culture consists of the shared beliefs, values, and assumptions that exist in an organization. These beliefs, values, and assumptions determine the norms that develop and the patterns of behaviour that emerge from these norms. The term "shared" means that all members have had uniform exposure to these elements and have some minimum common understanding of them. Organizational members often take the influence of culture for granted. Culture tends to be stable, providing social continuity and may influence behaviours both inside and outside the organization. Culture has a strong impact on both organizational performance and member satisfaction. Subcultures are smaller cultures that develop within a larger organizational culture that reflect departmental differences in training, occupation, or departmental goals. B. The "Strong Culture" Concept In a strong culture, the beliefs, values and assumptions that make up the culture are both intense and pervasive across the organization. The majority of the firm's members support the culture which provides great consensus concerning what the organization is about and what it stands for. In weak cultures, the beliefs, values, and assumptions are less strongly ingrained and/or less widely shared across the organization. Thus, they are fragmented and have less impact on organizational members. C. Assets of Strong Cultures Organizations with strong cultures have several potential advantages. Coordination. The overarching values and assumptions facilitate the coordination of different parts of the organization and communication. Conflict Resolution. Sharing core values can also facilitate conflict resolution. Financial Success. Strong cultures contribute to financial success and other indicators of organizational effectiveness when the culture supports the mission, strategy and goals of the organization. D. Liabilities of Strong Cultures Strong cultures can also be a liability under some circumstances. Resistance to Change. The same strong consensus about common values and appropriate behaviour that gives an organization a strong culture can also make it resistant to change. This means that a strong culture can damage a firm’s ability to innovate. Culture Clash. Strong cultures pushed together in a joint venture or merger can result in a culture clash. Pathology. Some cultures are based on beliefs, values, and assumptions that support a pathology of infighting, secrecy, and paranoia that leaves little time to do business. Such cultures can threaten organizational effectiveness. E. Contributors to the Culture Two key factors that contribute to the foundation and continuation of organizational cultures are the founder’s role and socialization. The Founder’s Role. Many strong cultures reflect the values of an organization’s founder. Walt Disney of the Disney Company, Sam Walton of Wal-Mart, Ray Kroc of McDonald's, T. J. Watson of IBM, Frank Stronach of Magna International, and Bill Gates of Microsoft are all examples of the imprint of founders on a company's culture. Such imprint is often kept alive through a series of stories about the founder passed on to successive generations of new employees. This provides continuing reinforcements of the firm’s core values. Socialization. The precise nature of the socialization process is a key to the culture that emerges in an organization because socialization is the means by which the culture's beliefs, values, and assumptions are learned. Research shows that organizations with strong cultures expose employees to a careful step-by-step socialization process: • Step 1 - Selecting Employees. New employees are carefully selected to obtain those who will be able to adapt to the existing culture. • Step 2 - Debasement and Hazing. Debasement and hazing provoke humility in new hires so that they are open to the norms of the organization. • Step 3 - Training “in the Trenches.” Training begins “in the trenches” so that employees begin to master one of the core areas of the organization. • Step 4 - Reward and Promotion. The reward and promotion system is carefully used to reinforce those employees who perform well in areas that support the goals of the organization. • Step 5 - Exposure to Core Culture. Again and again, the culture’s core beliefs, values, and assumptions are asserted to provide guidance for member behaviour. • Step 6 - Organizational Folklore. Members are exposed to folklore about the organization, stories that reinforce the nature of the culture. • Step 7 - Role Models. Identifying people as “fast trackers” provides new members with role models whose actions and views are consistent with the culture. What is most important about this process is the consistency among these steps and their mutually reinforcing properties that make for a strong culture. E. Diagnosing a Culture One way of learning about a culture is to examine the symbols, rituals, and stones that characterize the organization's way of life. For insiders, these symbols, rituals, and stories are mechanisms that teach and reinforce the culture. Symbols. Symbols such as a corporate motto or mascot provide common meaning and reinforce cultural values and what the company considers important. Rituals. Rituals and ceremonies such as parties and gatherings are expressive events that define and build the culture. They send a cultural message and convey the essence of a culture. Stories. The folklore of organizations – stories about past organizational events – is a common aspect of culture. Stories and anecdotes, both pleasant and unpleasant, are told repeatedly across generations of employees to communicate informally “how things work”. Such stories reflect the uniqueness of organizational cultures. Researchers have identified several common themes that appear to underline many organizational stories. Chapter 9 I. What is Leadership? Leadership is the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context. Although any organizational member can influence other members, individuals with titles such as manager, executive supervisor, and department head are in assigned leadership roles and are expected to exert formal leadership and influence others. II. Are Leaders Born? The Search for Leadership Traits Throughout history, social observers have been fascinated by obvious examples of successful interpersonal influence. The implicit assumption is that those who become leaders and do a good job of it possess a special set of traits that distinguish them from the masses of followers. Trait theories of leadership, however, did not receive serious scientific attention until the 1900s. A. Research on Leadership Traits During World War I, the US military began to search for those traits which would help in identifying future officers. Traits are individual characteristics such as physical characteristics, intellectual ability, and personality. While many traits are not related to leadership, research shows some traits are associated with leadership although the connections are not very strong. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the study of leadership traits, and a number of studies have shown that certain traits are closely linked to leadership including emotional intelligence and several of the “Big Five” personality dimensions (agreeableness, extraversion, and openness to experience). However, the usefulness of these findings and the trait approach is questionable. B. Limitations of the Trait Approach There are several reasons why the trait approach is not the best means of understanding and improving leadership. First, it is difficult to determine if traits make the leader or if opportunity for leadership produces the traits. Second, we have few clues about what leaders actually do to influence others successfully. Third, the most crucial problem of the trait approach to leadership is its failure to take into account the situation in which leadership occurs. However, traits are a precondition for certain actions that a leader must take in order to be successful. III. Lessons from Emergent Leadership Following the discouragement with the trait approach, psychologists began to investigate what leaders do in group settings. These studies concentrated on emergent leadership or the behaviours in which certain group members exhibit that cause them to become leaders. Two leadership roles were apparent. The task leader is a leader who is concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others, planning strategy, and dividing labour. The social-emotional leader is a leader who is concerned with reducing tension, patching up disagreements, settling arguments, and maintaining morale. Both of these functions are important leadership roles. Thus, in general, leaders must be concerned with both the social-emotional and task functions. IV. The Behaviour of Assigned Leaders What are the crucial behaviours that leaders engage in, and how do these behaviours influence subordinate performance and satisfaction? A. Consideration and Initiating Structure The most involved, systematic study of leadership began at Ohio State University . This research had employees describe their superiors along a number of behavioural dimensions. This revealed two basic types of leadership behaviour. Consideration involves the extent to which the leader is approachable and shows personal concern for employees. Initiating structure involves the degree to which the leader concentrates on group goal attainment. B. The Consequences of Consideration and Structure Research shows that consideration and initiating structure both contribute positively to employees’ motivation, job satisfaction, and leader effectiveness. However, consideration is more strongly related to follower satisfaction (leader satisfaction and job satisfaction), motivation, and leader effectiveness, while initiating structure is slightly more strongly related to leader job performance and group performance.There is some evidence that the relative importance of consideration and initiating structure varies according to the nature of the leadership situation. In general, the effects of consideration and initiating structure depend on characteristics of the task, the employee, and the setting in which the work is performed. These contingencies will determine which behaviour is most appropriate and when it is to be employed. C. Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviours Leader reward behaviour provides employees with compliments, tangible benefits, and deserved special treatment. Leader punishment behaviour involves the use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of raises, promotions, and other rewards. Contingent leader reward and punishment behaviour is positively related to employees’ perceptions (e.g., trust in supervisor), attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction and organizational commitment), and behaviour (e.g., effort, performance, organizational citizenship behaviour). Noncontingent punishment behaviour is negatively related to these outcomes. V. Situational Theories of Leadership The situation refers to the setting in which influence attempts occur. The setting includes the characteristics of the employees, the nature of the task they are performing, and characteristics of the organization. Two of the best known and most studied leadership theories are Fiedler’s Contingency Theory and House’s Path-Goal Theory. A. Fiedler's Contingency Theory Fred Fiedler has developed a situational theory of leadership called Contingency Theory. According to the theory, the association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on (depends on) the extent to which the situation is favourable for the exertion of influence. Leadership Orientation. Fiedler has measured leadership orientation by having leaders describe their Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC), a current or past co-worker with whom the leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task. Fiedler has argued that the LPC score reveals a personality trait that reflects the leader's motivational structure. The leader who describes the LPC relatively favourably (a high LPC score) can be considered relationship oriented. The leader who describes the LPC unfavourably (a low LPC score) can be considered task oriented. Situational Favourableness. This is the "contingency" part of Contingency Theory. Factors affecting situational favourableness include: leader-member relations, task structure, and position power. In general, the situation is most favourable for leadership when leader-member relations are good, the task is structured, and the leader has strong position power. The Contingency Model. According to the theory, a task orientation (low LPC) is most effective when the leadership situation is very favourable or when it is very unfavourable. A relationship orientation (high LPC) is most effective in conditions of medium favourability. Evidence and Criticism. Although there is reasonable support for Fiedler's Contingency Theory, several studies have found some evidence to be contradictory suggesting that theory needs some adjustment. B. House's Path-Goal Theory House's Path-Goal Theory is concerned with the situations under which various leader behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, achievement-oriented) are most effective. The Theory. According to House, effective leaders form a connection between employee goals and organizational goals. In order to provide job satisfaction and leader acceptance, leader behaviour must be perceived as immediately satisfying or as leading to future satisfaction. Leader Behavior. Path-Goal Theory is concerned with four specific kinds of leader behaviour: Directive behaviour. Directive leaders schedule work, maintain performance standards, and let employees know what is expected of them. Supportive behaviour. Supportive leaders are friendly, approachable, and concerned with pleasant interpersonal relationships. Participative behaviour. Participative leaders consult with employees about work-related matters and consider their opinions. Achievement-oriented behaviour. Achievement-oriented leaders encourage employees to strive for a high level of goal accomplishment. Situational Factors. Path-Goal Theory is concerned with two primary classes of situational factors: employee characteristics and environmental factors. Different types of employees need or prefer different forms of leadership. Thus, employees who are for example, high need achievers, prefer to be told what to do, or who feel that they have low task abilities will each respond best to certain types of leadership. Also, according to the theory, the effectiveness of leadership depends on the particular work environment. Thus, routine tasks, challenging but ambiguous tasks, and frustrating, dissatisfying jobs each require specific leader behaviours for leadership to be effective. Effective leaders should take advantage of the motivating and satisfying aspects of jobs while offsetting or compensating for those job aspects that demotivate or dissatisfy. Evidence and Criticism. In general, there is some research support for the situational propositions of the theory. Supportive or considerate leader behaviour is most beneficial in supervising routine, frustrating, or dissatisfying jobs. Directive or structuring leader behaviour is most effective on ambiguous, less structured jobs. As well, the theory is more effective in predicting employee job satisfaction and acceptance of the leader than in predicting employee performance. VI. Participative Leadership: Involving Employees in Decisions An important topic of leadership is participative leadership. A. What is Participation? Participative leadership involves employees in making work-related decisions. Leaders can vary in the extent to which they involve employees in decision- making. Participative leadership should not, however, be confused with abdication of leadership, which is almost always ineffective. Participation can involve individual employees or the entire group of employees that reports to the leader. B. Potential Advantages of Participative Leadership There are several advantages of participative leadership. Motivation. Participation can increase the motivation of employees. Participation leads to the establishment of work goals and can increase intrinsic motivation by enriching subordinates’ jobs. Quality. Participation can lead to higher-quality decisions and empower employees to take direct action to solve problems. Acceptance. Participation can increase employees’ acceptance of decisions especially when issues of fairness are involved. C. Potential Problems of Participative Leadership There are several difficulties associated with participation. Time and Energy. Participation involves specific behaviours on the part of the leader and these behaviours use time and energy. Loss of Power. Some leaders feel that a participative style will reduce their power and influence. Lack of Receptivity or Knowledge. Employees might not be receptive to participation or might lack the knowledge to contribute effectively to decisions. D. A Situational Model of Participation Victor Vroom and Arthur Jago have developed a model that attempts to specify in a practical manner when leaders should use participation and to what extent they should use it. This model takes into account various degrees of participation that can be exhibited by the leader including autocratic, consultative, and group consensus. The most effective strategy depends on the situation or problem at hand. In general, the leader’s goal should be to make high-quality decisions to which employees will be adequately committed without undue delay. To do this, he or she must consider a number of questions in a decision tree. By taking a problem through the decision tree, the leader can determine the correct degree of participation for the problem solving situation. Following the model’s prescriptions is more likely to lead to successful managerial decisions than unsuccessful decisions. The model has been used frequently in management development seminars. E. Does Participation Work? In general, employees who participate in job-related decisions are more satisfied than those who do not. Thus, most workers seem to prefer a participative work environment. However, the effects of participation on productivity are still open to question. Participation should work best when employees feel favourably toward it, when they are intelligent and knowledgeable about the issue at hand, and when the task is complex enough to make participation useful. VII. Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leader Member Exchange or LMX Theory is a theory of leadership that focuses on the quality of the relationship between a leader and an employee. High quality relationships or high LMX involve a high degree of mutual influence and obligation as well as trust, loyalty, and respect between a leader and an employee. Low-quality relationships or low LMX is characterized by low trust, respect, obligation, and mutual support. The quality of LMX is related to employee job performance, overall satisfaction, satisfaction with supervision, commitment, role conflict, role clarity, and turnover intentions. VIII. Transformational and Transactional Leadership Traditional theories of le
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