PSY102 Study Guide - Winter 2019, Comprehensive Final Exam Notes - Memory, Blood Sugar, Arousal

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30 Mar 2019
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PSY102 : 15th of January
Before cognition, a lot of behaviorist and psychologists (study’s things they can observe) did
not like this. These things were ignored. These neuropsychologists believed that if you
should understand someone's behavior you should understand how someone thinks
If we had to pay attention to everything we would be overwhelmed.
Neuropsychologists have categorized in two different ways.
1. how much attention do these processes involve
2. whether these processes can be done in sequence or simultaneously
How many forms? 6 forms:
1. Attentional Processing
2. Serial Processing
Thoughts, actions that must be done consecutively (in sequence)
3. Parallel Processing
Doing thing simultaneously (two things at the same time)
4. Control Processing
Requires attention as well
5. Automatic Processing
Doesn’t require any attention, like a reflex
6. Bottleneck Processing
When you can’t do something at the same time, it must be done
separately in sequence. (Step #2)
Intelligence: The capacity to reason, solve problems, and acquire new knowledge
WE DON’T PROCESS INFORMATION THE SAME WAY
Hard to find and hard to measure!
Banet: developed a test that determined the child’s mental age.
Terman: Published an adaptation of Binet Scale
He came up with a formula to identify the child’s IQ
Wechsler: Published a derivative of the IQ called it the WAIS
He used the normal distribution of values
Nowadays we use deviation IQ scores instead, placing the subject in a part of the curve
depending on the age.
100 SD (standard deviation of 15)
They measure aptitude (potential ability) not achievement (achievement is what a person
knows)
They tap into factual knowledge
1. Is it true that they are adapting what the 100 means?
2. Test created in New Jersey
3. Seem to correlate well with academics and job employment.
Are some of us more intelligent than others?
Spearman says yes due to General Intelligence aka as g
g is a common factor that relies on certain mental abilities.
Raymond Cattel said intelligence wasn’t a g factor and he argued for different types of
intelligence
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Defined two types of intelligence:
- fluid intelligence: this is the ability to process information and act accordingly (takes
a bit longer to process info as we get older)
- crystallized intelligence: this is a mental ability that comes from previous experiences.
Life experiences, information you pick up as you get older.
As we get older crystallized intelligence increases, but fluid intelligence decreases as we get
older (IMPORTANT FOR THE TEST)
Processing Speed: Theory saying that people who process information faster have higher IQ
Working memory capacity: memory we use to guide our behavior
May be another factor that contributes to other general intelligence
The more you have the more intelligence you may be?
Central executive function: Located in the frontal lobes
You might have higher level intelligence as well
Imaging studies have shown that doing hard things the part of the brain is activated
The higher the grey area of the frontal lobe the higher the IQ
Allowing babies to listen to Mozart, or to read them.
Mozart enhances babies IQ ? NO but not sure lols
You do this by studying twins, siblings and unrelated siblings
Biggest influence on intelligence is genetics. (in general!)
However, it can be said that the environment plays a small role (culture and socio-economic
status is environment)
Unrelated siblings being raised in the same environment
1. Beginning will show similar IQ scores
2. As time goes by they will diverge and IQ scores will change
3. IQ SCORES KEEP GOING UP!!!!! (every 30 years!) around 115 right now, why?
4. The environment has changed we have access to stuff other people didnt 30 years
ago
Robert Sternberg: he asked himself : why are some people good at math and other better at
sports?
Came up with the triarchic theory of intelligence:
1. Analytic Intelligence: Type of intelligence generally assessed by intelligent tests that
present well-defined problems with only one correct answer
2. Creative Intelligence: Type of intelligence characterized by the ability to adapt to new
situations, come up with unique and unusual ideas, and think of novel solutions to
problems
3. Practical Intelligence: Problem solving. The ability to find many solutions to
complicated or poorly defined problems and use those solutions in practical, everyday
situations
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