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SOC 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Socioeconomic Status, Delayed Gratification, Deindustrialization


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 101
Professor
Barry Mc Clinchey
Study Guide
Midterm

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Definitions
January-28-11
5:56 PM
Personality
An individual's relatively stable pattern of behaviours and feelings
Nature vs. Nurture
Debate between whether biological or environment define the person we
become
Socialisation
The lifelong process by which we lean our culture, develop our personalities
and become functioning members of society
Social interaction
The ways in which people interact in social settings, recognising each
person's subjective experiences and/or intentions
Sociobiology
Uses evolutionary theory and genetic inheritance to examine the biological
roots of social behaviour
Evolutionary psychology
Relabelled form of sociobiology that argues that Darwinian inheritance can
explain contemporary human behaviour
Self
One's identity, comprising a set of learned values and attitudes that
develops through social interaction and defines one's self image
Self image
An introspective composition of various features and attributes that people
see themselves as
I
Mead's term for the element of the self that is spontaneous, creative,
impulsive and often unpredictable
Me
Mead's term for the socialised element of the self.
Significant others
People we want to impress or gain approval from
Generalised self
A compilation of attributes associated with the average member of society;
represents an individual's appreciation that other members of society
behave within socially accepted rules and guidelines
Role-taking
Assuming the position of another to better understand that person's
perspective
Primary socialisation
Occurs when people learn the attitudes, values and appropriate behaviours
for individuals in their culture.
Secondary socialisation
Follows primary socialisation and occurs through participation in more
specific groups with defined roles and expectations.
Defence mechanism
Freud's term to describe the ways in which individuals manage painful
memories
Id
Freud's term for an individual's biological drives and impulses that strive for
instant gratification

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Superego
Freud's term for all the norms, values and morals that are learned through
socialisation
Ego
Freud's term for the intermediary between the id and the superego that
provides socially acceptable ways to achieve wants.
Gender stereotyping
The assignment of beliefs to women and men, respectively, that are not
based on fact.
Socioeconomic status
Social status as determined by family income, parents' education, parents'
occupation, and the family's social standing within the community
Culture capital
Social assets (values, beliefs, attitudes, competencies) that are gained from
one's family and help one to succeed in life.
Peer groups
Consist of people who are closely related in age and share similar interests
Hidden curriculum
The unconscious, informal and unwritten norms and rules that reinforce and
maintain social conventions
Mass media
Forms of communication produced by a few people for the consumption by
the masses
Life course
Socialisation that occurs throughout one's adult life
Birth cohort
All of the people who are born during a given period of time and therefore
experience historical events at the same points in their lives
Empty nest syndrome
The depression that some parents feel when their children have left home
Gerontology
Scientific study of age and aging
Dying trajectories
The course that dying tales in both social and psychological senses
Resocialisation
The profound change or complete transformation of a person's personality
as a result of being placed in a situation or an environment dedicated to
changing his or her previous identity
Total institutions
A setting in which people are isolated from society and supervised by an
administrative staff
Mortifications of the self
The first stage of the resocialisation process, in which a person's existing
identity is stripped away
Social stratification
A society's hierarchical ranking of people into social classes
Social class
A group of individuals sharing a position in a social hierarchy, based on birth
and achievement
Social status
An individual’s position within the class structure
Meritocracy
A system of rewards based on personal attributes and demonstrated
abilities
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