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Midterm

Definitions: Chapters 6-8, 12 Definitions for all bolded words in chapters 6, 7, 8, and 12 that will be tested on the second midterm.

7 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 101
Professor
Barry Mc Clinchey

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Description
Definitions January-28-11 5:56 PM Personality An individual's relatively stable pattern of behaviours and feelings Nature vs. Nurture Debate between whether biological or environment define the person we become Socialisation The lifelong process by which we lean our culture, develop our personalities and become functioning members of society Social interaction The ways in which people interact in social settings, recognising each person's subjective experiences and/or intentions Sociobiology Uses evolutionary theory and genetic inheritance to examine the biological roots of social behaviour Evolutionary psychology Relabelled form of sociobiology that argues that Darwinian inheritance can explain contemporary human behaviour Self One's identity, comprising a set of learned values and attitudes that develops through social interaction and defines one's self image Self image An introspective composition of various features and attributes that people see themselves as I Mead's term for the element of the self that is spontaneous, creative, impulsive and often unpredictable Me Mead's term for the socialised element of the self. Significant others People we want to impress or gain approval from Generalised self A compilation of attributes associated with the average member of society; represents an individual's appreciation that other members of society behave within socially accepted rules and guidelines Role-taking Assuming the position of another to better understand that person's perspective Primary socialisation Occurs when people learn the attitudes, values and appropriate behaviours for individuals in their culture. Secondary socialisation Follows primary socialisation and occurs through participation in more specific groups with defined roles and expectations. Defence mechanism Freud's term to describe the ways in which individuals manage painful memories Id Freud's term for an individual's biological drives and impulses that strive for instant gratification Superego Freud's term for all the norms, values and morals that are learned through socialisation Ego Freud's term for the intermediary between the id and the superego that provides socially acceptable ways to achieve wants. Gender stereotyping The assignment of beliefs to women and men, respectively, that are not based on fact. Socioeconomic status Social status as determined by family income, parents' education, parents' occupation, and the family's social standing within the community Culture capital Social assets (values, beliefs, attitudes, competencies) that are gained from one's family and help one to succeed in life. Peer groups Consist of people who are closely related in age and share similar interests Hidden curriculum The unconscious, informal and unwritten norms and rules that reinforce and maintain social conventions Mass media Forms of communication produced by a few people for the consumption by the masses Life course Socialisation that occurs throughout one's adult life Birth cohort All of the people who are born during a given period of time and therefore experience historical events at the same points in their lives Empty nest syndrome The depression that some parents feel when their children have left home Gerontology Scientific study of age and aging Dying trajectories The course that dying tales in both social and psychological senses Resocialisation The profound change or complete transformation of a person's personality as a result of being placed in a situation or an environment dedicated to changing his or her previous identity Total institutions A setting in which people are isolated from society and supervised by an administrative staff Mortifications of the self The first stage of the resocialisation process, in which a person's existing identity is stripped away Social stratification A society's hierarchical ranking of people into social classes Social class A group of individuals sharing a position in a social hierarchy, based on birth and achievement Social status An individual’s position within the class structure Meritocracy A system of rewards based on personal attributes and demonstrated abilities Social mobility Movement between social classes Intergenerational The comparison of adult children's social class to that of their parents mobility Intragenerational Status movement throughout one's lifetime mobility Classism An ideology that suggests that people's relative worth is at least partly determined by their social and economic status Blaming the victim A perspective that holds individuals responsible for the negative conditions in which they live Culture of poverty fatalistic belief system held by the poor as an adaptation to systemic discrimination. Deferred gratification Ability to forgo immediate pleasures in the interest of achieving greater rewards in the future. Blaming the system Perspective that holds that systematic discrimination exists within the social system Deindustrialisation transformation of an economy from one based on manufacturing to one based on services Closed system A social system in which status is based on attributes ascribed at birth Open system A social system in which status is based on achieved attributes Caste system An ascribed system of hereditary class designation Reincarnation The belief, associated with eastern religions, that one's essence does not die and instead is reborn in another form Class structure economic hierarchy that categorises groups based on their socio economic status Socio economic status Social position, based on income, occupational prestige and education. Income Money received annually from all sources Wealth Net accumulated assets including homes, land and stocks Quintiles A measure that divides population into five categories, each representing 20%. Davis Moore Thesis Social stratification is functional for society because it ensures that key social positions are held by the most capable people. Status group A group of people who share similar social status, lifestyles, world views, occupations, and standards of living. Power Ability to make others do something they would not otherwise do Status inconsistency occurs when an individual occupies several differently ranked statuses at the same time Status symbol material indicators that demonstrates a person's social and economic position Conspicuous Purch
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