Study Guides (238,528)
Canada (115,195)
Sociology (23)
SOC 101 (23)

Midterm 3 Review Review material for the third midterm; covers lecture and textbook notes on religion, crime and mass media (chapters 13, 14, 17).

21 Pages
Unlock Document

Bishop's University
SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Religion February1911 329 PMSociologists study religion to investigate its relationship with social forcesHow the forces influences individuals and their livesReligion a set of organised beliefs about the supernatural or spiritual world that guides behaviour and joins people into communities of believersKey concept to religion is faith a belief system based on conviction that does not require objective evidence to substantiate its claims FunctionalismEmile Durkheim Elementary Forms of Religious Life o Considered defining analysis of religion from a functionalist perspective o Asserted that all religions originate in society which creates religion by separating the world into the profane and the sacred o Profane elements of the everyday world that do not inspire or motivate o Sacred things or activities that are set apart ritualised and at times inspire emotional reactions Originates within members of society who collectively assign special meanings to certain objects or ritualso Totem an object that has special significance and meaning for a group of believers o Religion is an extension of society and functions to join members of the group according to shared meanings and world views or the collective conscience the group awareness that manifests itself in part through religiono Also believed it was a strong source of social power that could inspire collective actiono Collective effervescence manifested when people join together for a common purpose expressed when a social group achieves a new and dynamic expression of the groups will and can motivate rapid changes in social structure Religion answers the problem of meaningFunctionalist perceptions of religious functions in society o Joins people into communities of believers that promote social stability and a sense of belonging Protects individuals from anomie and alienation helps them resist disruptive social movementso Provides people with a social identity Often achieved through acceptance ceremonies Solidarity is affirmed and enhanced through public rituals and ceremonies o Provides social control through establishment of moral standards of behaviour Orderly social existence is only possible when people share common moral values o Provides people with a sense of purpose and brings meaning to their lives Explains where people come from and where they are goingo Provides a social service function Offer support to people in needAssumes religion is purely functional and dismisses instances where it is dysfunctional Suggested that Durkheims analysis of sacred and profane is rigid and does not fit the anthropological record Fails to recognise roles that social class power and gender play in development and maintenance of religion Conflict TheoryGrounded on three primary assumptions o Religion is socially constructed and built on economic relationships o Religion diminishes feelings of frustration resulting from the forces of alienation o Religion is used by the social political and economic elite to control the workersMarx religion as a form of social control Dulls the pain of oppression for the proletariat and prevents them from seeing the world as it truly exists o Considered religion as one of the primary ways that the bourgeoisie ensure that the proletariat maintains a state of false consciousness o Illusion that keeps people submissive o Ideological expression of the contradictions and tensions present in human relations Studying and critiquing religion uncovers the problems at the root of social relations o Solution was to remove and replace capitalism with a nonexploitative economic system communism Marxs assumption that religion supports and maintains the status quo is challenged by work of Max Weber who argued religion can be the inspiration behind social changeo Weber argues that predestination the doctrine that god alone chooses or elects who is saved inspired angst among believers and inspired capitalismo Calling ones work believed to be an expression of gods will particularly if that work brings financial success Some religious movements advocate income redistribution in societyo Liberation theology a movement by religious fundamentalists who advocate a literal interpretation of the bible to promote greater social equalitySymbolic Interactionist TheoryView religion as an important source of rituals and symbols that help to define peoples perception of their social world Rituals reinforce group members byo Confirming common historical connection among believers remind them of their groups myths and beliefs o Promote social cohesion through shared experiences and world views o Allow public demonstration of moral standards confirm expectation that they are followed o Facilitate a connection to the supernatural creates feelings of inspiration and motivationCombine to influence how people see themselvesReligious indoctrination and identity o Three phases of conversionPotential converts experience events or episodes that make them question themselves Wonder if there is more to life than what they have experienced so far Concludes when initiates enter new religious organisationInitiates begin to incorporate the ideas of the new group into their own world views Initiates sever all ties to previous lives increasingly reliant on new group for social and emotional support Intense interaction with new group Initiates time is completely dominated by duties and obligations Little time to reflect on drastic changes in their lives Conversion solidified when new members sacrifice their material wealth usually donated to operation and maintenance of the new groupFeminist TheoryCady Stanton Bible and organised religion hinders womens emancipation
More Less

Related notes for SOC 101

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.