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Definitions Definition sheet covering all bolded words in chapters 13, 14 and 17, which will be on the third midterm.

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Bishop's University
SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

Definitions March-04-11 5:21 PM Religion a set of organised beliefs about the supernatural or spiritual world that guides behaviour and joins people into communities of believers Faith a belief system based on conviction that does not require objective evidence to substantiate its claims Profane elements of the everyday world that do not inspire or motivate Sacred things or activities that are set apart, ritualised, and at times inspire emotional reactions Totem an object that has special significance and meaning for a group of believers Collective conscience According to Durkheim, the group awareness that manifests itself, in part, through religion Predestination the doctrine that god alone chooses (or elects) who is saved Calling one's work, believed to be an expression of god's will, particularly if that work brings financial success Liberation theology a movement by religious fundamentalists who advocate a literal interpretation of the bible to promote greater social equality Secularisation the process by which developed societies move away from explanations based on religion to ones based on science, rationality and logic Animism Tylor's first stage, supernatural entities are believed to inhabit both living things and inanimate objects Polytheism Belief in many gods; can be diffuse with all gods considered equal, or hierarchal with gods ranked in importance or power. Also Tylor's second stage Monotheism belief in a single, all powerful, all knowing god Civil religion (secular exists when sacred symbols are integrated into the boarder society religion) regardless of their individual religious affiliations New religious an informal group without defined deified structure; generally emerges movement (cult) around authoritarian and charismatic leaders who suppress rational thought to isolate members from the larger society Sect a small religious body, with exclusive or voluntary membership, that is aloof from or hostile to the larger society Church an institution that brings together a moral community of believers in formal worship and integrates itself within the larger secular world Religious pluralism a system in which many religions coexist and often compete with one another for members Ecclesia a system in which a church and the state have a formalised relationship Mysticism Weber's term for religions that seek harmony with the natural world, other people and the human body Inner worldly orientation that focuses on the tangible world and our own creature comforts and aspirations Outer worldly orientation that focuses on separation from the everyday world and finding spiritual enlightenment Theocracy form of government in which a god or other supernatural being is seen as the supreme civil ruler Proselytise to attempt to convert members of other belief systems into your own Dharma the moral responsibilities and guidelines that define an entire way of life Nirvana the state of spiritual perfection Karma the belief in cause and effect in a person's life Jen Confucian virtue of possessing a benevolent and humanitarian attitude Li Confucian desire to maintain proper relationships and rituals that enhance the life of the individual, the family and the state Restorationist belief assert that contemporary Christianity no longer reflects its foundational systems ideals Fundamentalism a movement designed to revitalise faith by returning to traditional religious practices Agnostic someone who thinks it is impossible to know whether god exists, but does not deny the possibility Atheist someone who denies the existence of any supernatural beings or forces Criminology the study of causation, crime prevention, and the punishment and rehabilitation of offenders Crime behaviours and actions that require social control and social intervention, codified in law Deviance actions that violate social norms, and that may or may not be against the law Social deviance any acts that involve the violation of social norms Moral entrepreneurs a person or institution that tales action in an attempt to influence or change the development or enforcement of society's moral code Positivism the application of the scientific method to the social world Biological determinism the hypothesis that biological factors completely determine a person's behaviour Strain theory the assertion that people experience strain when culturally defined goals cannot be met through socially approved means Illegitimate opportunity the assertion that individuals commit cr
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