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SOC 101 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Religious Pluralism, Civil Religion, Christian Symbolism


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 101
Professor
Barry Mc Clinchey
Study Guide
Midterm

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Definitions
March-04-11
5:21 PM
Religion
a set of organised beliefs about the supernatural or spiritual world that
guides behaviour and joins people into communities of believers
Faith
a belief system based on conviction that does not require objective evidence
to substantiate its claims
Profane
elements of the everyday world that do not inspire or motivate
Sacred
things or activities that are set apart, ritualised, and at times inspire
emotional reactions
Totem
an object that has special significance and meaning for a group of believers
Collective conscience
According to Durkheim, the group awareness that manifests itself, in part,
through religion
Predestination
the doctrine that god alone chooses (or elects) who is saved
Calling
one's work, believed to be an expression of god's will, particularly if that work
brings financial success
Liberation theology
a movement by religious fundamentalists who advocate a literal
interpretation of the bible to promote greater social equality
Secularisation
the process by which developed societies move away from explanations
based on religion to ones based on science, rationality and logic
Animism
Tylor's first stage, supernatural entities are believed to inhabit both living
things and inanimate objects
Polytheism
Belief in many gods; can be diffuse with all gods considered equal, or
hierarchal with gods ranked in importance or power. Also Tylor's second
stage
Monotheism
belief in a single, all powerful, all knowing god
Civil religion (secular
religion)
exists when sacred symbols are integrated into the boarder society
regardless of their individual religious affiliations
New religious
movement (cult)
an informal group without defined deified structure; generally emerges
around authoritarian and charismatic leaders who suppress rational thought
to isolate members from the larger society
Sect
a small religious body, with exclusive or voluntary membership, that is aloof
from or hostile to the larger society
Church
an institution that brings together a moral community of believers in formal
worship and integrates itself within the larger secular world
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Religious pluralism
a system in which many religions coexist and often compete with one
another for members
Ecclesia
a system in which a church and the state have a formalised relationship
Mysticism
Weber's term for religions that seek harmony with the natural world, other
people and the human body
Inner worldly
orientation that focuses on the tangible world and our own creature
comforts and aspirations
Outer worldly
orientation that focuses on separation from the everyday world and finding
spiritual enlightenment
Theocracy
form of government in which a god or other supernatural being is seen as the
supreme civil ruler
Proselytise
to attempt to convert members of other belief systems into your own
Dharma
the moral responsibilities and guidelines that define an entire way of life
Nirvana
the state of spiritual perfection
Karma
the belief in cause and effect in a person's life
Jen
Confucian virtue of possessing a benevolent and humanitarian attitude
Li
Confucian desire to maintain proper relationships and rituals that enhance
the life of the individual, the family and the state
Restorationist belief
systems
assert that contemporary Christianity no longer reflects its foundational
ideals
Fundamentalism
a movement designed to revitalise faith by returning to traditional religious
practices
Agnostic
someone who thinks it is impossible to know whether god exists, but does
not deny the possibility
Atheist
someone who denies the existence of any supernatural beings or forces
Criminology
the study of causation, crime prevention, and the punishment and
rehabilitation of offenders
Crime
behaviours and actions that require social control and social intervention,
codified in law
Deviance
actions that violate social norms, and that may or may not be against the law
Social deviance
any acts that involve the violation of social norms
Moral entrepreneurs
a person or institution that tales action in an attempt to influence or change
the development or enforcement of society's moral code
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