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Textbook notes chapter 1-5 These notes helped me get a 95% on my first online midterm. The large labels are very useful if you use the notes while you are writing the midterm since it is easy to locate which section a particular question is in. MySocLab s

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC 101
Professor
Barry Mc Clinchey
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 1 Understanding the Sociological Imagination Sociology the systematic study of human groups and their interactions Charles Wright Mills Failing to appreciate how individual challenges are influenced by larger social forces diminishes a persons ability to understand and resolve them; Personal Troubles personal challenges that require individual solutions (such as failing a test) Social Issues Challenges caused by larger social factors that require collective solutions (such as the whole class failing a test) Quality of Mind Mills term for the ability to view personal circumstance within social context (without this no one would deal with social issues and issues would not be dealt with collectively); to improve quality of mind Mills suggest the sociological imagination Sociological Imagination Mills term for the ability to perceive how dynamic social forces influence individual lives; involves stepping out of yourself and looking at yourself from a new perspective and asking Who am I and why do I think the way I do?; when people see their own histories in a social context they improve their quality of mind Peter Berger (Invitation to Sociology: A Humanistic Perspective) Believed that seeing the general in the particular and the familiar as strange and looking at individual circumstances and broadening them to see the larger social patterns was employing sociological perspective Sociological perspective a view of society based on the dynamic relationships between individuals and the larger social network in which we all live Five factors that affect the way we perceive ourselves and others include; minority status, gender, socio-economic status, family structure, urban-rural differences and to understand our own biases and investigate the social world is using the sociological perspective. Agency the assumption that individuals have the ability to alter their socially constructed lives Ascribed Status attributes assigned at birth Achieved Status attributes developed throughout life as a result of effort and skill The Origins of Sociology The Chinese philosopher Kung fu-tzu (Confucius) and the ancient Greeks engaged in elaborate discussions and writings about society in general and the role of the individual citizen in particular; the Sophists focused on the human being, in contrast to the earlier tradition that concentrated on understanding the physical world; Socrates and Plato (The Republic asked what social justice was and what characteristics of a just individual are) advocated the necessity of deeper reflection on the human social condition; Ibn Khaldun is the first social philosopher working from the sociological perspective Three revolutionary events inspired the rise of sociology which in the scientific revolution, the political revolution and the Industrial Revolution. The Scientific Revolution Auguste Comte (Law of Three Stages) coined the term sociology and is often considered the father of sociology, believed that the scientific techniques could be applied to the social world as well. The Theological Stage the longest period of human thinking characterized by a religious outlook that explains the world and society as an expression of Gods will and views science as a means to discover Gods intentions The Metaphysical Stage was a period during which people began to question everything and to challenge the power of the teachings of the Church; people could understand and explain their universe through their own insight and reflection The Positive Stage the final stage which he believed that the world would be interpreted through a scientific lens that society would be guided by the rules of observation, experimentation and logic Positivism a theoretical approach that considers all understanding to be based on science; quantitative sociology Positivism has three primary assumptions; 1. There exists an objective and knowable reality (people can figure things out if the try and there shouldnt be any subjectivity) 2. Since all sciences explore the same, singular reality, over time all sciences will become more alike (there is only one correct explanation for the physical and social worlds) 3. There is no room in science for value judgments (no good or bad science) Anti positivism a theoretical approach that considers knowledge and understanding to be the result of human subjectivity; qualitative sociology Anti-positivism challenges all three of the positivists assumptions; 1. The social world cannot be totally understood just using numbers and formulas and social value must be assigned to them 2. All sciences will not merge since no single method can reach a complete understanding of our world and in fact the sciences become more unique over time as scientists find new areas to research and understand more about the world 3. Science cannot be separated from our values and what is studied is a social expression The Political Revolution Niccolo Machiavelli (The Prince) Nobility and power were not a birthright and that anyone could take power if and when the opportunity presented itself Rene Descartes Cogito ergo sum (I think, therefore I am) human beings are able to understand their world through rational reflection Thomas Hobbes people were driven by 2 primary passions; fear of death and the desire for power; long-term stability can be achieved only when citizens join together and agree to forgo individual power for a collective John Locke ideas are not innate and all knowledge is the result of experience; people were born as blank slates; to increase knowledge one must gather more information about the material world through science Jean-Jacques Rousseau prior to organized society, human beings existed in a natural state whereby an individuals desire was solitary and self-centred but as society develops people realize that they could achieve more by working together (the social contract) The Industrial Revolution Changed virtually every aspect of life: family structure, how people made a living, peoples thoughts, dreams and aspirations Values cultural assessments that identify something as right, desirable, and moral Quantitative sociology the study of behaviours that can be measured (e.g. income levels) Qualitative sociology the study of non-measurable, subjective behaviours (e.g. the effects of divorce) Macrosociology the study of society as a whole (big picture first, individuals second) (tends to be deductive, sees behaviour as predictable and is associated with European social theory) Early theorists include; Karl Marx Insight into the nature of human relationships, people are naturally competitive with each other because they have unlimited wants but an unequal ability to fulfill them; all relationships have power imbalances to understand how power permeates the ways people interact not only as individuals but also as entire classes Emile Durkheim established sociology as a serious scientific endeavour; he believed that people wanted to work together for collective benefit Max Weber centered on how the social world is becoming increasingly rationalized over time (people are becoming more focused on selecting the most efficient means to accomplish any particular end Microsociology the study of individual or small-group dynamics within a larger society (individuals first, society second)(tends to be inductive, sees behaviour as creative and is characteristically North American and contemporary) Early theorists include; George Herbert Mead viewed the individual mind and self as rising out of the social process of communication; Symbolic Interactionism a perspective asserting that people and societies are defined and created through the interactions of individuals Charles Horton Cooley suggested that people define themselves by how others view them; we become the person that we believe others see to be us Herbert Blumer meaning, language and thought led him to conclude that people create their sense of self within the larger social world Sociology in Canada Four defining features which distinguish Canadian sociology from American are; Canadas Geography and Regionalism Quebec offers a unique linguistic and cultural influence (The Quiet Revolution the influence of the Catholic Church minimized and replaced by provincial bureaucracy) Focus on Political Economy Political economy - the interactions of politics, government and governing, and the social and cultural constitution of markets, institutions and actors Harold Innis (The Fur Trade in Canada, The Cod Fisheries)- first Canadian sociologist to investigate Canadas political economy; Canadian society seems to be defined by the realization that Canada is not one of the worlds major economic or social forces Staples thesis Canadian development was based on exploitation of raw materials that were sent to European countries to fuel their own industrial thirsts Canadianization Movement many early Canadian sociologists were trained at the Chicago School of Sociology Radical Nature of Canadian Sociology its greater focus on Macrosociology as well as feminist ideas and perspectives Margrit Eichler simultaneous emergence of the Canadianization movement and the women`s movement led to a politics of knowledge that proved helpful to both; she attempts to reverse the politics of erasure which she argued has ignored the historical contributions made by female sociologists Early Canadian Sociologists Annie Maclean (Wage-Earning Women) first Canadian woman to receive a Ph.D in sociology, forerunner on the subject of working women Sir Herbert Brown Ames (The City below the Hill: A Sociological Study of a Portion of the City of Montreal, Canada)- sociology which relied on various statistical analyses to document the li
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