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Exam Three Defintions Chapters 13, 14, 17 Definitions on exam Alphabetized for easy access during online exams

6 Pages

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SOC 101
Barry Mc Clinchey

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Exam 3: Chapters 13, 14, 17. Chapter 13: Agnostic: Someone who thinks it is impossible to know whether God exists, but does not deny the possibility. Animism: Tylor’s first stage, in which supernatural entities are believed to inhabit both living things and inanimate objects. Atheist: Someone who denies the existence of supernatural beings or forces. Asceticism: Weber’s term for religions that seek mastery over the natural world, other people, and the human body. Biological Determinism: The hypothesis that biological factors completely determine a person’s behavior. Block Printing: A process in which wooden blocks are engraved with images and text, inked, and then pressed onto paper. Blog: An online diary in which an individual posts personal reflections on events, specific topics, and/or experiences. CanCon (Canadian Content): Federal regulations that stipulate the required percentage of Canadian content in television and radio broadcasts. Calling: One’s work, believed to be an expression of God’s will, particularly if that work brings financial success. Chivalry Hypothesis: The belief that female offenders are treated more leniently by law enforcement officials as result of the latter’s traditional chivalrous attitude towards women. Church: An institution that brings together a moral community of believers in formal worship and integrates itself within the larger secular world. Civil Religion (Secular Religion): Exists when sacred symbols are integrated into the broader society regardless of the individual religious affiliations. Collective Conscience: According to Durkheim, the group awareness that manifests itself, in part, through religion. Cool Media: Media that convey less information and require more participation from their audience (ex. Seminars). Correlation Function: Media’s role in filtering and making comprehensible the huge daily volume of news stories and issues. Crime: Behaviors and actions that require social control and social intervention, codified in law. Criminogenic Environment: An environment that, as a result of laws that privilege certain groups, produces crime of criminality. Criminology: The study of crime causation, crime prevention, and the punishment and rehabilitation of offenders. Cybriety: Tremblay’s term describing attempts to censor new media content that pushes the boundaries of morality. Demassification: A process by which the mass audience is fragmented into small groups or niches to appeal to unique interests. Deviance: Actions that violate social norms, and that may or may not be against the law. Differential Association Theory: The assertion that the ratio of messages for and against criminal behavior in one’s peer group determines whether one will engage in criminal activity. Digital Socially: A social landscape in which new communication technologies are promoting human interaction and contact. Dharma: The moral responsibilities and guidelines that define an entire way of life. E-audience: Those who use electronic communication technologies. Ecclesia: A system in which a church and state have a formalized. Entertainment Function: Media’s role in helping people rest, relax, and escape the pressures of everyday life. Faith: A belief system based on conviction that does not require objective evidence to substantiate its claims. Fear-gender Paradox: The phenomenon whereby women experience higher rates of fear of being victimized even though men are more likely to be victims of crime. Fundamentalism: A movement designed to revitalize faith by retuning to traditional religious practices. Hieroglyphics: An early form of visual communication developed by the Egyptians. Hot Media: Media that contain a great deal of information but involve only a single sensory organ and demand very little from their audience (ex. Newspapers). Hyperral: Bauderillard’s belief that people’s perceptions, as defined by media, lead to the sense of a simulated reality. Illegitimate Opportunity Theory: The assertion that individuals commit crime as a result of their particular deviant learning environment. Inner-wordly: An orientation that focuses on the tangible world and our own creature comforts and aspirations. Jen: Confucian virtue of possessing a benevolent and humanitarian attitude. Karma: The belief in cause and effect in a person’s life; you reap what you sew. Labeling Theory: The assertion that once people have been labeled as deviant, they come to accept the label as part of their identity. Li: Confucian desire to maintain proper relationships and rituals that enhance the life of the individual, the family and the state. Liberation Theology: A movement by religious fundamentalists who advocate
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