Exam 3: Chapters 13, 14, 17.
Agnostic: Someone who thinks it is impossible to know whether God exists, but does
not deny the possibility.
Animism: Tylor’s first stage, in which supernatural entities are believed to inhabit
both living things and inanimate objects.
Atheist: Someone who denies the existence of supernatural beings or forces.
Asceticism: Weber’s term for religions that seek mastery over the natural world,
other people, and the human body.
Biological Determinism: The hypothesis that biological factors completely
determine a person’s behavior.
Block Printing: A process in which wooden blocks are engraved with images and
text, inked, and then pressed onto paper.
Blog: An online diary in which an individual posts personal reflections on events,
specific topics, and/or experiences.
CanCon (Canadian Content): Federal regulations that stipulate the required
percentage of Canadian content in television and radio broadcasts.
Calling: One’s work, believed to be an expression of God’s will, particularly if that
work brings financial success.
Chivalry Hypothesis: The belief that female offenders are treated more leniently by
law enforcement officials as result of the latter’s traditional chivalrous attitude
Church: An institution that brings together a moral community of believers in formal
worship and integrates itself within the larger secular world.
Civil Religion (Secular Religion): Exists when sacred symbols are integrated into
the broader society regardless of the individual religious affiliations.
Collective Conscience: According to Durkheim, the group awareness that manifests
itself, in part, through religion.
Cool Media: Media that convey less information and require more participation from
their audience (ex. Seminars). Correlation Function: Media’s role in filtering and making comprehensible the huge
daily volume of news stories and issues.
Crime: Behaviors and actions that require social control and social intervention,
codified in law.
Criminogenic Environment: An environment that, as a result of laws that privilege
certain groups, produces crime of criminality.
Criminology: The study of crime causation, crime prevention, and the punishment
and rehabilitation of offenders.
Cybriety: Tremblay’s term describing attempts to censor new media content that
pushes the boundaries of morality.
Demassification: A process by which the mass audience is fragmented into small
groups or niches to appeal to unique interests.
Deviance: Actions that violate social norms, and that may or may not be against the
Differential Association Theory: The assertion that the ratio of messages for and
against criminal behavior in one’s peer group determines whether one will engage in
Digital Socially: A social landscape in which new communication technologies are
promoting human interaction and contact.
Dharma: The moral responsibilities and guidelines that define an entire way of life.
E-audience: Those who use electronic communication technologies.
Ecclesia: A system in which a church and state have a formalized.
Entertainment Function: Media’s role in helping people rest, relax, and escape the
pressures of everyday life.
Faith: A belief system based on conviction that does not require objective evidence
to substantiate its claims.
Fear-gender Paradox: The phenomenon whereby women experience higher rates
of fear of being victimized even though men are more likely to be victims of crime.
Fundamentalism: A movement designed to revitalize faith by retuning to traditional
religious practices. Hieroglyphics: An early form of visual communication developed by the Egyptians.
Hot Media: Media that contain a great deal of information but involve only a single
sensory organ and demand very little from their audience (ex. Newspapers).
Hyperral: Bauderillard’s belief that people’s perceptions, as defined by media, lead
to the sense of a simulated reality.
Illegitimate Opportunity Theory: The assertion that individuals commit crime as a
result of their particular deviant learning environment.
Inner-wordly: An orientation that focuses on the tangible world and our own
creature comforts and aspirations.
Jen: Confucian virtue of possessing a benevolent and humanitarian attitude.
Karma: The belief in cause and effect in a person’s life; you reap what you sew.
Labeling Theory: The assertion that once people have been labeled as deviant, they
come to accept the label as part of their identity.
Li: Confucian desire to maintain proper relationships and rituals that enhance the life
of the individual, the family and the state.
Liberation Theology: A movement by religious fundamentalists who advocate