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Exam Review ch1-4 Excellent concise exam review for chapters 1-4

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SOC 101
Sara Cumming

Chapter 1 Understanding Sociological ImaginationThe Sociological PerspectiveoSociology is the systematic study of human groups and their interactionsoThe sociological perspective isThe unique way in which sociologists see our world and can dissect the dynamic relationships between individuals and the larger social network in which we all liveA view of society based on thedynamic relationships between individuals and the larger social network in which we all liveSocial location where people are located in a particular societyCharles Wright Mills and the sociological imaginationoC W Mills suggested that people who do not or cannot recognize the social origins and character of their problems may be unable to respond to these problems effectivelyFailing to appreciate how individual challenges are influenced by larger social forces diminishes a persons ability to understand and resolve themoPersonal troubles are individual challenges that require individual solutionsoSocial issues are challenges caused by larger social factors that require collective solutionsThese involve a group of people and collective action is required for the groups concerns to be acknowledged and potentially acted uponoMany personal troubles never become social issues because people rarely equate what is happening to them with the larger social worlds in which they existoQuality of mind is Mills term for the ability to view personal circumstance within a social context It has nothing to do with the persons intelligence or level of educationomuch private uneasiness goes unformulated much public malaise and many decisions of enormous structural relevance never become public issuesoThe Sociological Imagination is Mills term for the ability to perceive how dynamic social forces influence individual livesIt involves stepping outside of your own condition and looking at yourself from a new perspectiveseeing yourself as the product of your family income level race and genderoPeople who judge others without understanding all of the issues involved may lack quality of mind and thus view the world in blackandwhite terms However when people understand themselves and others through the sociological imagination they appreciate that very few things are black and whitePeter Berger defines the sociological perspective as the ability to view the world from two distinct yet complementary perspectives seeing the GENERAL IN THE PARTICULAR and seeing the STRANGE IN THE FAMILIARoSeeing the general in the particular is the ability to look at seemingly unique events or circumstances and understand the larger or general features involvedThe ability to move from the particular to the general and back again is one of the hallmarks of the sociological perspectiveoSociologists also need to look at familiar events and see them as strange which develops and shows evidence of the sociological perspective having quality of mind and beginning to develop the sociological imaginationoSociology is less about remembering details and specifics than about seeing the social world from a unique positionone that allows us to understand social context and to appreciate the position of othersWhat makes you you Engaging the sociological imaginationoAgency the assumption that individuals have the ability to alter their socially constructed livesoWhile we are all individuals we are also the culmination of many social forcesoFive factors who make us the persons we areMinority statusPeople who are members of visible minority groups face various forms of discriminationBeing a healthy heterosexual Caucasian people experience more advantages than if they are part of any of the minoritiesGenderSociety treats men and women differently Men have more advantagesoWomen usually earn less than menSocioeconomic statusSES is a term used to describe a combination of variables to position or score people on criteria such as income level level of education achieved occupation and area of residenceAscribed status is a term used to describe a person who has been assigned an advantage or a disadvantage simply through birthAchieved status is a term meaning that the current status of a person is one that has been achieved through personal attributes or qualitiesFamily structureRegardless of a childs age higher income tends to be related to better physical socialemotional cognitive and behavioural wellbeingFamily structure does influence a childs development to the extent that femalelone parents tend to have lower incomes than twoparent structuresUrbanRural differences
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