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Final Exam - BIO1010U.docx

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BIOL 1010U

Final Exam Mendelian and Non-Mendelian inheritance Characteristic - heritable feature of an organism (ie. Colour and shape) Codominance - each allele affects the phenotype in a distinct way Dependent assortment - occurs when an alleles tend to assort in pairs or groups, rather than independently Dihybrid cross - cross between two organisms that are each heterozygous for two distinct genes Dominant - a trait that is expressed even when only one copy of the allele encoding the trait is present in the genotype Epistasis - genes interact to mask or change the effect of each F1 generation - first filial offspring of the parents; F2 generation - second filial generation; offspring of F1 Gene - segment of DNA with instructions for protein synthesis Genotype - alleles present in an organism Heritable trait - characteristic that is passed from parent to offspring through the gametes Heterozygous - two different alleles for a trait present Homozygous - alleles are identical Incomplete dominance - one allele is not able to completely mask the other allele Monohybrid cross - cross between two organisms, each of which is heterozygous for the trait Multifactorial - traits that are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors Non-Mendelian Inheritance - genes that do not follow Mendelian patterns of inheritance Norm of Reaction -range of phenotypic possibilities for a trait P generation - parental generation Phenotype - physical or physiological characteristic present; defines as the manifestation of the genes in an organism Pleiotropy - single gene with multiple effects Polygenic Inheritance - trait is determined by more than one gene Principle of Dominance - some traits are dominant and mask recessive traits Principle of Independent Assortment - each pair of alleles segregates separately for any other pair of alleles when gametes are formed Principle of Segregation - two alleles for each gene separate from each other when gametes for, so that each gamete contains one allele of each gene Punnett square -table method that is used to assess probabilities of outcomes in genetics Recessive - a trait that is masked by the dominant trait and is only expressed in the homozygous condition Segregation - two alleles for each trait separate when gametes form Testcross - a cross between an organism with an unknown genotype and an individual that is homozygous recessive Trait - form of a characteristic represented True-breeding - organisms that when bred only have offspring with the same phenotype as the parents; the organism is homozygous at the genotypes of interest. Chromosome Theory and Linked Genes Chromosome theory of inheritance- theory that chromosomes are the basis of all genetic inheritance Epigenetics (multifactorial effects) - study of effects of other factors on inherited traits Hemizygous - only one member of a chromosome pair or chromosome segment rather than the usual two Pedigree - mapping or charting of a family history, showing the occurrence of a trait or characteristic Sry gene - "sex-determining region Y" Linked gene - gene that is co-transcribed with another, due to proximity on the same chromosome Mutant - variations on the wild-type phenotype caused by mutations or changes in the genetic makeup Recombinant - genetic sequence or a genome that arises form the combination of genetic material; such as through meiosis; can refer to an organism synthetically modified to contain specific genes in its genome that are not naturally occurring Sex-linked trait - genes associated with the sex chromosome Sex-linked disorder - disorder arising from dysfunction in a sec chromosome or associated strongly with characteristics determined by sex Wild type - most common phenotype in nature X-linked gene - most sec-linked traits are on the X chromosome, but not the Y chromosome, because X is much lager than Y Y-linked gene - A trait that is inherited through the Y chromosome DNA Structure and Replication Adenine - one of the purine bases; complement to thymine Antiparallel - two complementary strands in DNA are oriented in opposite directions: 5' to 3' or 3' to 5' Chromosome - tightly coiled form of the DNA-protein complex Cytosine - one of the pyrimidine bases: complement to guanine Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) - a double-stranded nucleic acid containing nucleotides that contain deoxyribose DNA helicase - protein that bonds to each strand of DNA and breaks the hydrogen bonds between the two strands DNA ligase - enzyme involved in sealing nucleotide bonds DNA polymerase I - replaces each of the RNA primers with the corresponding DNA nucleotides in the Okazaki fragments DNA polymerase III -recognizes the primer and adds nucleotides to the 3' end of the primer double helix - two anti-parallel strands held together by hydrogen bonds coiled into a helical shape Guanine - one of the purine bases; complement to cytosine Lagging strand - 3' end of the growing strand faces away from the replication fork, so is formed in a series of fragments of 1,000-2,000 nucleotides each Leading strand - the daughter stand in which assembly occurs continuously, because the 3' end of the growing strand faces the replication fork Nitrogenous base - component of nucleotides that makes each unique: adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine and uracil; grouped into two families: pyrimidines and purines. Key element of complementary base pairing of nucleic acids. Nucleotide - organic molecule containing a nitrogenous base, a phosphate and a 5-carbon sugar molecule Mismatch repair - process by which enzymes cut into the incorrect nucleotide from the daughter stand and replace it with the appropriate nucleotide according to base-paring rules Nuclease - An enzyme that removes corrupted sections of DNA during nucleotide excision repair nucleotide excision repair - during this process, proteins remove the sections of DNA containing large errors and replace with new nucleotides Okazaki fragment - fragments formed during DNA replication of the lagging strand; must be connected together with DNA ligase to complete replication of strand Origin of replication - certain sequence of nucleotides where DNA replication begins. In eukaryotes, there are several origins of replication. In prokaryotes, there is one. Purine - pyrimidine
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