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Bio II Midterm II Chapter 52 Notes

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BIOL 1020U
Mary Olavson

Biology Midterm 2 – Review Chapter 52 Overview: The Scope of Ecology  Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment and reveals the richness if the biosphere  These in interactions determine distribution of organisms and their abundance The Scope of Ecological Research  Ecologists work at levels (biosphere (global  landscape)  ecosystems  communities  populations  organisms) o Biosphere (the global ecosystem, the sum of all ecosystems)  Global Ecology examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere  Landscape Ecology deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in a geographic region (a landscape is a mosaic of ecosystems) o Ecosystem Ecology emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling among the various biotic and abiotic components; an ecosystem is the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact o Community Ecology deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community; a community is a group of populations of different species in an area o Population Ecology focuses on factors affecting how many individuals of a species live in an area; a population is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area o Organismal Ecology studies how an organism’s structure, physiology, and (for animals) behaviour meet environmental challenges Concept 52.1 – Ecology integrates all areas of biological research and informs environmental decision making  Ecology has a long history as a descriptive science and is a rigorous experimental science  Air (atmosphere), Water (hydrosphere), Soil & Rocks (lithosphere), and Life (biosphere)  Researchers uses a system of troughs and pipes to create artificial “wet” and “dry” conditions to study how a forest responds to altered precipitation  Linking Ecology and Evolutionary Biology – events that occur in ecological time affect life on the scale of evolutionary time  Ecology and Environmental Issues o Ecology provides the scientific understanding that underlies environmental issues o Ecologists make a distinction between science and advocacy o Rachel Carson is credited with starting the modern environmental movement with the publication of Silent Spring in 1962 Concept 52.2 – Interactions between organisms and the environment limit the distribution of species  Ecologists have long recognized global and regional patterns of distribution of organisms within the biosphere  Biogeography is a good starting point for understanding what limits geographic distribution of species  Ecologists recognize two kinds of factors that determine distribution o Biotic (living) factors o Abiotic (non-living) factors  Distribution of species o Ecologists consider multiple factors when attempting to explain the distribution of species  Dispersal and Distribution o Dispersal is movement of individuals away from centres of high population density or from their area of origin; it contributes to global distribution of organisms o Natural range expansions show the influence of dispersal on distribution  Species Transplants o Include organisms that are intentionally or accidentally relocated from their original distribution o Can disrupt the communities or ecosystems to which they have been introduced  Behaviour and Habitat Selection o Some organisms do not occupy all of their potential range o Species distribution may be limited by habitat selection behaviour  Biotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms may include: o Interactions with other species o Predation o competition  Abiotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms may include: o Temperature o Water o Salinity o Sunlight o Wind o Rocks and soil o Climate o (most abiotic factors vary in space and time)  Temperature o Environmental temperature is an important factor in distribution of organisms because of its effect on biological process o Cells may free and rupture below 0 degrees Celsius, while most proteins denature above 45 degrees Celsius o Mammals and birds expend energy to regulate their internal temperature  Water o Water availability in habitats is another important factor in species distribution o Desert organisms exhibit adaptations for water conservation  Salinity o Salt concentration affects water balance of organisms through osmosis o Few terrestrial organisms are adapted to high-salinity habitats  Sunlight o Light intensity and quality affect photosynthesis o Water absorbs lights, thus, in aquatic environments, most photosynthesis occurs near the surface o In deserts, high light levels increase temperature and can stress plants and animals  Rocks and Soil o Many characteristics of soil limit distribution of plants and this the animals that feed upon them:  Physical structure  pH  mineral composition  Climate o Four major abiotic components of climate are temperature, water, sunlight and wind o The long-term prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate o Macroclimate consist of patterns on the global, regional, and local level o Microclimate consists of very fine patterns, such as those encountered by the community of organisms underneath a fallen log  Global Climate Patterns o Global climate patterns are determined largely by solar energy and the planet’s movement in space o Sunlight intensity plays a major part in determining the Earth’s Climate Patterns o More hear and light per unit of surface area reach the tropic than the high latitudes o Global air circulates and precipitation patterns play major roles in determining climate patterns o Warm, wet air flows from the tropics toward the poles o Air flowing close to Earth’s surface creates predictable global wind patterns o Cooling trade winds blow form eat to west in the tropics; prevailing westerlies blow form the west to east in temperature zones  Regional, Local, and Seasonal Effects on Climate o Proximity to bodies of water and topographic features contribute to local variations in climate o Seasonal variation also influences climate  Bodies of Water o The Gulf Stream carries water from the equator to the North Atlantic o Oceans and their currents and large lakes moderate the climate of nearby terrestrial environments o During the day, air rises over warm land and draws a cool breeze from the water across the land o As the land cools at night, air rises over the warmer water and draws cooler air form land back over the water, which is replaced by warm air offshore  Mountains o Mountains have a significant effect on the amount of sunlight reaching an area, local temperature, and rainfall o Rising air releases moisture on the windward side of a peak and creates a “rain shadow” as it absorbs moisture on the leeward side  Seasonality o The angle of the sun leads to many seasonal changes in local environments o Lakes are sensitive to temperature change and experience seasonal turnover  Microclimate o Determined by fine-scale differences in the environment that affect light and wind patterns  Climate Change o Global climate change has been a natural phenomenon on a geological time-scale  Shifting continents and mountain ranges  Emerging and disappearing oceans  Recent Climate Change o Recent global climate change will profoundly affect the biosphere  linked to human activities such as burning fossil fuels o One way to predict future global climate change is to study previous changes that occurred o As glaciers began retreating 16000 years ago, tree distribution patterns changes o As climate changes, species that have difficultly dispersing may have smaller ranges or could become extinct Concept 52.3 – Aquatic biomes are diverse and dynamic systems that cover most of the Earth  Biomes are the major ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water  varying combinations of biotic and abiotic factors determine the nature of biomes  Aquatic Biomes o Account for the largest part of the biosphere in terms of area o They can contain fresh water or salt water (marine) o Oceans cover about 75% of the Earth’s surface and have an enormous impact on the biosphere o Many aquatic biomes are stratified into zones or layers defined by light penetration, temperature, and depth  Zonation of Aquatic Biomes o The upper photic zone has sufficient light for photos
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