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CHEM 1010U Study Guide - Francium, Lead, Barium

Course Code
CHEM 1010U

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Chemistry 1010 Chapter 1 September 8th/14
Element: A fundamental substance that cannot be chemically changed or broken down
into anything simpler.
There are 118 elements:
90 naturally occurring
28 artificially produced
83 of the 90 naturally occurring elements are found in reasonable abundance on earth
Others like Francium (Fr) are more rare – there is less than 20 grams on the entire Earth
at any given time
Identifying Elements:
1 or 2 letter symbols:
The first letter is capitalized
The second is lower case
English name:
Hydrogen = H
Aluminum = Al
Derive from Latin or other languages:
Sodium = Na (Latin natrium)
Lead = Pb (Latin plumbum)
Tungsten = W (German wolfram)
The first element to be discovered in several thousand years was Arsenic (symbol???)
As new elements were found people began to find similarities
Categorize elements based on similar properties
John Dobereiners observation in 1829 there were triads that appeared to be
Calcium, Strontium, Barium
Cl, Br, I
Lithum, Na, Potsassium
Chemical and Physical Properties:
Property – any characteristic that can be used to describe or identify matter
Example: colour, shape
Intensive properties: values that do not depend on the amount of substance
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