ANATO MY AND PHYSIOLOGY FINAL
1. What are the differences between organic and inorganic compounds? Give important examples
that are essential to the human body?
Organic compounds are large carbon based molecules that carry out complex functions. They
contain carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen and make up 38-43 percent of the human body.
Inorganic compounds do not contain carbon. They are water, salts, acids and bases.
2. How much of the human body is water and where is it stored?
55-60% of the human body is water and that decreases as you age. 2/3 of that is in the
intracellular fluid, while the remaining 1/3 is in extracellular fluid. 80% of that is interstitial fluid
and 20% is in plasma.
Intracellular fluid is IN the cells.
Interstitial fluid is found between the cells.
3. Explain acids and bases in relation to the pH scale
The pH scale is done on a scale from 0-14. 14 being basic, 0 being acidic, and 7 being neutral.
Acids; 0-7 .. substance that has more H+ than OH- .. dissociates into H+ anion (-)
Bases; 7-14 .. substance that has more OH- than H+ .. dissociates into OH- cation (+)
4. What are buffers and why are they important?
Buffers are the chemical compounds that can convert strong acids and bases into weak ones by
removing or adding H+. This is important because strong acids can change pH drastically which can
disrupt the body’s metabolism. Bases do not have much of an effect on pH.
5. What are carbohydrates and which foods contain them?
Carbohydrates include sugars, glycogen, starches and cellulose. They are large and have several
functions. They make up 2-3% of your body mass. They serve as chemical energy for generating
ATP needed to drive metabolic reactions. They contain CHO.
6. Give the differences between a simple sugar and a starch? What are their functions?
Monosaccharide’s: Simple sugars. Monomer of a carbohydrate. Usually end in OSE. Disaccharide’s: The combination of two monosaccharide’s by dehydration synthesis and therefore
produces a molecule of H20. Glucose+ Fructose = Sucrose. Can be split by hydrolysis.
Polysaccharides: tens or hundreds of monosaccharide’s joined through dehydration synthesis.
Insoluble in water unlike simple sugars. Major in humans is glycogen and in plants is starch.
7. What is the structure of a triglyceride?
Lipids: make up 18-25% of the body. Contain CHO. Are not soluble unless proteins are added.
Fatty Acid; Simplest Lipid. Saturated have H at every possible bond, are straight and have single C-
C bonds. Unsaturated don’t have H at every bond, but have C=C bonds and are kinked/bent in
A triglyceride has a glycerol backbone with three fatty acids attached to it. It is the most plentiful
lipid in our body. They store energy in the form of fatty acids. Most efficient and compact way of
storing energy. Twice as much chemical energy as carbs. Cushions organs and provides insulation.
They are formed in the intestines and liver and they combine with proteins to transport in the
blood as lipoproteins. Are stored in unlimited amounts in the adipose tissue.
Fat: solid @ room temp
Oil: liquid @ room temp
8. What do triglycerides do in our body?
Provide cushion, insulation. Provide energy and a compact way of storing it. Combine with proteins
to be transported in the blood.
9. What phospholipids do is related to how they look. Explain
Phospholipids have a glycerol and 2 fatty acid linkage, with a phosphate group in the head which
makes the head polar. Has both polar and nonpolar parts which makes it amphiphatic.
10. What are the structural components of proteins? Explain the levels of organization
Proteins are large molecules that contain CHON and sometimes S. A normal adult is 12-18%
protein. They are complex in structure. Some work to drive muscle contraction.
Enzymes; proteins that speed up biochemical reactions.
Amino Acids; building blocks of proteins joined by a peptide bond when there are two or more.
Dipeptide: when 2 amino acids combine
Polypeptide: 10 + amino acids
Proteins are organized by ..
Primary: a line
Secondary: double helix or beta pleated sheet Tertiary: 3D
Quaternary: contain more than 1 polypeptide chain
11. How do enzymes work?
An enzyme is essentially a catalyst to increase the rate of a reaction using less energy. Usually end
in ASE. They are highly specific and efficient. They work by ..
1. Substrates make contact with the active site on the surface of an enzyme molecule forming a
temporary compound called the enzyme-substrate complex. (water and sucrose and the enzyme
2. Substrate is transformed by the rearranging of existing atoms, breakdown of the substrate.
(glucose + fructose)
3. Reaction products move away from the enzyme and the enzyme is free to attach to other
12. What is the structure and functional importance of mitochondria?
The mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell and is the site of aerobic cellular respiration which
produces most of the cells ATP. It has an outer and inner mitochondrial membrane. Plays a role in
apoptosis which is the death of a cell.
Cristae: partitions in mitochondria studded with protein
13. What are the major characteristics of the nucleus? (Include general concepts about the nuclear
envelope and nucleoli)
The nucleus is the gene-containing control center of the cell. It dictates the kinds and amounts of
proteins to be made. Contains the genetic library with blueprints for cellular proteins. Mature red
blood cells have no nucleus. The outer membrane of the nucleus is continuous with the ROUGH
Nuclear Envelope: double membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Nucleoli: one or more spherical bodies inside the nucleus that function in producing ribosomes
Chromatin: in the nucleus and contain the genes. 23 pairs of chromosomes are contained within
Nucleolus: single form of nuclei. Cluster of protein, DNA and RNA. More of these in muscle and
liver cells due to protein composition.
Nuclear Pores: Extend through nuclear membrane in order to control movement of substances
from nucleus to cytoplasm.
14. Where in the cell are the ribosomes and why are they important?
Site of protein synthesis either in the cytosol(free) or attached to the ROUGH ER(fixed). Made in
nucleus(2 subunits), assembled in cytoplasm(fully assembled to make protein). Packages of RNA and protein
DNA: blue print for RNA (transcription)
RNA: blue print for protein (translation) .. determines sequence of amino acids
15. What is the endoplasmic reticulum? What are structural and functional similarities and differences
between rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
The endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the nuclear envelope and is parallel/flattened
membranes and sacks.
ROUGH ER: contains ribosomes and produce proteins that enter spaces found on parallel structure
where they become packed and sorted and sent out where needed
SMOOTH ER: none but extends from the rough er contains unique enzymes that synthesize fatty
acids and steroids, detoxifies certain drugs
16. What is the main structure and function of the Golgi apparatus?
Golgi apparatus is the shipping and receiving part of the cell. Consists of 3-20 flattened
membranous sacs called cisternae. Modify, sort and package proteins from the rough ER for
Secretory vesicles- transported outside the cell
Membrane vesicle- incorporated into cell membrane
Transport vesicle- transported to lysosomes
17. What is the cell cycle and why does it matter in health?
The cell cycle is needed for tissue repair and growth. Human somatic cells contain 23 pairs of
chromosomes. Two chromosomes that make up each pair are homologues. Somatic cells contains
two sets of chromosomes are diploid.
Mitosis: nuclear division - - Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
Meiosis: reproductive cell division that results in 4 daughter cells each with a single set of 23
chromosomes (haploid cells) :
18. What is cell differentiation? What are major differences and similarities between stem cells and
Cell differentiation is the process by which a less developed and specialized cell develops into a
cell that possesses a distinct form and function. Stem cells are unspecialized and divide very
rapidly and can produce specialized cells.
19. What is the structure of the plasma membrane?
The plasma membrane is a flexible yet sturdy barrier that surrounds and contains the cytoplasm of
a cell. It is best described structurally by the fluid mosaic salad.
The Lipid Bilayer: two back to back layers made up of 3 types of lipids ; phospholipids,
glycolipids(appear on extracellular side making it asymmetrical) and cholesterol. Occurs because
of the amphipathic properties of a phospholipid. Polar = head, nonpolar = tail. Also contains
proteins – transmembrane (go from inside of cell to outside) and peripheral.
20. How do different substances move in and out of the cell?
Active and Passive transport via the cell membrane. 21. What role do membrane proteins & some specialized membrane structures play in movement of
Membrane proteins are proteins in the plasma membrane either integral or transmembrane
(which are integral proteins).
Integral **all of these**: extend into or through the lipid bilayer among the fatty acid tails and are
firmly embedded in it.
Transmembrane: span the entire lipid bilayer and protrude into the cytosol and extracellular fluid.
Peripheral: attached to polar heads of the membrane
Glycoproteins: carbohydrate groups attached to them which protrude into the extracellular fluid.
THE MEMBRANE PROTEINS
Ion Channel (integral): allows specific ions to move through water filled pore
Carrier (Integral): allows substances across membrane by changing shape Enzyme (Integral and Peripheral): catalyzes reaction inside or outside of cell
Linker (Integral and Peripheral): anchors filaments in and out of plasma membrane
Cell Identity Marker (Glycoprotein) : distinguishes your cells as unique
22. Compare passive vs active transport.
Active transport; requires ATP .. movement of particles from an area of lower concentration to
higher (Na K Pump .. pump is transporter)
1. Primary AT; uses ATP
2. Secondary AT; uses energy produced from passive diffusion of anion
Passive transport; doesn’t require ATP
1. Diffusion; random mixing of particles in a solution due to kinetic energy Influenced by steepness of concentration gradient, temperature, mass of diffusing substance,
surface area, and diffusion distance
*simple diffusion; through membrane
*ion channel; small ions across membrane
*facilitated through ion channel; transport proteins carrier larger molecules ie. Glucose
-- channel mediated: K + ion
-- carrier mediated: glucose transporter
OSMOSIS: movement of water from a high concentration to a low concentration through a
selectively permeable membrane through lipid bilayer by SIMPLE DIFFUSION or via an
aquaporin protein carrier (integral membrane protein).
23. What are the major differences and similarities between the 3 types of cytoskeleton structures?
Cytoskeleton is a network of protein filaments in the cytosol. Cytosol + Organelle = cytoplasm.
It provides structural support for the cell which determines the cell shape, organizes cellular
content, aids in movement of organelle in cell division, etc.
Microfilaments: strands of actin filament found in microvilli, attached to cytoplasmic side of cell
membrane, help generate movement .. digestive tract
Intermediate Filaments: tough, insoluble, keratin, high tension can be withstood, help form
Microtubules: dynamic hollow tubes made of spherical protein tublin, act like walls organize
which organelle go where
24. What are the major structural and functional characteristics that distinguish simple squamous,
cuboidal and columnar epithelia?
Simple Squamous: flat and cover endothelium in blood vessels
Cuboidal: cubes and
Columnar: columns ..goblet cells (secreting gland) single cells that produce mucus either line
respiratory tract or absorb from villi in digestive tract
25. What structural and functional features make pseudostratified epithelium unique?
Pseudostratified epithelium appears to have more than one layer because all the cells are
different in size with a different location of the nucleus but it is really only one layer.
26. What are the differences and similarities between stratified squamous and transitional epithelia?
Stratified squamous: skin and esophagus and needs lots of layers because they get worn out easily from shedding of skin and friction of peristalsis in esophagus
Transitional: only found in the bladder..stretches and compresses like a balloon
27. What is collagen, what are its properties and which cells produce it?
Collagen is a fiber that is very strong, but not stiff, and often occurs in parallel bundles. It is the
most abundant of proteins (25%) and exists in tendons, bones, cartilage and ligaments. It is
produced by fibroblasts.
28. What are the functions of adipose tissue?
Adipose tissue is the major site for stored energy reserves. It is a loose connective tissue meaning
the fibers are spread around.
29. What characterizes dense connective tissues?
More fibers present but fewer cells.
Dense regular; all fibres arranged in one direction
Irregular; all different directions can be stretched in many directions
Elastic; allows stretch
30. Why is cartilage so unique structurally and functionally?
Cartilage is the second main connective tissue. It has no blood supply or nerve supply. It is a
network of fibers in a ground substance made of firmly bound collagen fibers and some elastin. It
is highly resilient and is stronger than both lose and dense connective tissue.
Elastic: ear flaps
Hyaline: most abundant, rib cage and joints
Fibrocartilage: between vertebrae, knee
Chondroblasts produce new matrix
Chondrocytes sit in spaces called lacunae.
Chondrocytes maintain matrix after skeleton has stopped growing
31. What are the three skin layers and what makes them different from each other?
Epidermis: top layer, mainly dead keratinocytes .. stratified squamous
.. has 5 layers (stratums) G S G C except on hands & feet there is lucidum between the top two
Dermis: middle layer with blood supply .. 80% of skin thickness ..
papillary = connects to epidermis
reticular = connects to subcutaneous (hypodermis)
exocrine and endocrine glands Subcutaneous(hypodermis): anchors skin ..adipose
32. What distinguishes keratinocytes, melanocytes, Langerhans' and Merkel cells?
Keratinocytes: 90% of cells, contain lamellar granules (waterproof), tough, continuous
Melanocytes: 8%, deepest layer, pigment for protection
Langerhans: immune cells, small amount, damaged by UV
Merkel: least numerous, deepest layer, touch receptors
33. What distinguishes skin glands from each other?
Sebaceous; oil (sebum) inhibits growth of bacteria - - acne
Sudoriferous; sweat *apocrine- smells .. eccrine* cools down
Ceruminous; ear wax ..barrier for foreign bodies
34. What are the main six functions of skin?
Cutaneous sensation, excretion, temperature regulation, vitamin D synthesis, blood reservoir,
35. How are bones classified?
By location (axial or appendicular skeleton), shape (long, short, flat, sesamoid, irregular), and
internal structure (compact or spongy)
36. What are the functions of skeletal cartilages and what are their important structural components?
Cartilage of the skull is avascular. It is nourished by the perichondrium which is in the outer layer
and is connective tissue that contains blood vessels and collects wastes from the cartilage itself. It
is limited by the thickness meaning it cannot nourish the layers that are too deep. It takes a long
time to heal because there are no nerves or blood.
There are 3 types of cartilage:
1. Hyaline: where bones meet .. articular cartilage .. most common
2. Elastic: ear flaps, epiglottis
3. Fibrocartilage: strongest, vertebrae, knees, pubic sympasis .. shock absorber
37. What are the functions of bone?
1. Support - structural framework for body
2. Protection - protects internal organs from injury 3. Movement- skeletal muscles pull on bones
4. Mineral Homeostasis -calcium and phosphorus stored and released
5. Blood Cell Production -red bone(spongy bone) marrow produces blood cells
6. Energy Storage - triglycerides stored in yellow marrow
38. What are the major structural differences between compact and spongy bone?
Spongy bone: found in diaphysis, inside of bone,..functional unit is tracbeculae, porous, reduces
weight, red bone marrow ; blood, yellow bone marrow; fat
Compact bone: found in epiphysis, outside of bone,..functional unit is osteon, concentric lamellae,
protection and support
39. Which are the major cells involved in bone physiology? What are their functional differences?
Osteogenic cell: unspecialized, start of bone production
Osteoblast: bone forming cell, synthesize and secrete collagen, initiate calcification
Osteocyte: mature osteoblast after calcification, most numerous
Osteoclast: bone destroying cell, don’t generate from any other cells, concentrated in endosteum
40. What are the major constituents of bone matrix?
Inorganic: 65% of bone mass (2/3), mineral salts (calcium carbonate and calcium phosphate are
why the bone is hard)
Organic: osteoblast, osteoclast, etc. 1/3 of bone mass is unmineralized collagen, glycoproteins, etc.
41. What are the main differences between intramembranous and endochondral ossification?
Intramembranous: flat bones of skull and mandible, soft spots on fetal skull, simple
Endochondral: all other bones, replacement of hyaline cartilage by bone, begins in second month
of development, hyaline cartilage bone models are used
42. How does a bone grow in length?
Epiphyseal plate turns into line..cartilage replaced by bone
43. How do PTH and calcitonin regulate bone remodeling?
Parathyroid hormone: if hypocalcemia occurs, PTH is stimulated to promote osteoclast activity
Calcitonin: Slows down osteoclast activity
44. What is the anatomical and functional significance of fibrous joints? Fibrous: dense irregular connective tissue
1. Sutures: thin layer
2. Syndesmoses: connected as a bundle or sheet
3. Gomphoses: periodontal ligament found in teeth
45. What are the major structural components of synovial joints?
Joints in which articulating bones are separated by synovial fluid. Allows for a lot of movement
between increasing and decreasing angles.
Structural classification: Diarthrosis
All limb joints, most joints in the body
Articular capsule 2 layered joint capsule
Fibrous capsule- dense irregular connective tissue (mainly collagen) that attaches to periosteum
of articulating bones. flexibility of fibrous capsule permits movement at joint while tensile
stregth (resistance to stretching) prevents dislocating.
Synovial membrane- areolar connective tissue with elastic fibres.
Articular cartilage surrounds synovial joint and connects articulating ends of bone
-smooth slippery surface to protect the ends of bone. Shock absorbers and reduces friction.
Joint (synovial) cavity contains synovial fliud
Synovial fluid slippery lubricating fluid to reduce friction. absorbs shocks, supplies oxygen and
nutrients to and removes CO2 and wastes from chondrocytres within articular cartilage.
Removes microbes and debris from normal wear and tear of joint
Reinforcing ligaments holds everything together. Gives strength and flexibility. Inside and
outside of articular capsule
Bursae – provides extra pads of lubricant as they slide over each other
46. Contrast fibrous vs cartilaginous vs synovial joints
Fibrous (dense irregular connective tissue)
*sutures: thin layer found only in the skull, synarthrosis (not movable), replaced by osseous tissue
* syndesmoses: found between tibula&fibia and ulna&radius, as a bundle (ligament), or sheet
(interosseous membrane), greater distance between articulating bones and denser fibrous
connective tissue in comparison with a suture, amphiarthrosis
* gomphoses: periodontal ligament found in teeth, amphiarthrosis (slightly movable)
* synchondroses: made out of hyaline cartilage, found in ribs and epiphyseal plate of long bones * symphyses: composed of tough fibrocartilage, end of bone surface, between bones,
Synovial joints in which articulating bones are separated by fluid containing joint cavities,
diarthrosis, all limb joints and most joints of the body, allow