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Midterm

Midterm 2 Notes.docx

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School
Department
Health Science
Course
HLSC 1200U
Professor
Kirk Hillsey
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 Bones Tissues Bones are classified - Location - Shape - Internal structure Functions of Skeletal Cartilages and their Important Structural Components - Hyaline Cartilage o Most common type fine collagen fibers - Elastic Cartilage o More elastic fibers than cartilage fibers, more flexible - Fibrocartilage o Strong collagen fibers, withstand tension and pressure Functions of Bone Support: Structural framework for body - Protection: Protects internal organs from injury - Movement: skeletal muscles pull on bones - Mineral homoeostasis: calcium and phosphorus stored and released - Blood Cell Production: red bone marrow produces blood cells - Energy Storage: triglycerides stored in yellow marrow Compact vs. Spongy bone - Spongy Bone o Inside of bone o Functional unit: trabeculae o Lightweight (more spaces) o Reduces overall weight o Protect & support red bone marrow o Blood cells, o Yellow marrow – medulla cavity o Storage site for adipocytes/triglycerides - Compact Bone o Outside of bone o Osteon o Concentric lamellae o Compact (heavy) with few spaces o Protection & support o Weight + bearing + movement Major cells involved in bone physiology and their functional differences - Osteogenic cell: unspecialized cells develop into osteoblast; only bone cell to undergo cell division - Osteoblast: synthesize + secrete collagen – strength, initiate calcification, trap in turns into osteocyte - Osteocyte: mature bone cell, most numerous, maintain daily metabolism - Osteoclast: monocytes, concentrated in the endosteum breakdown bone tissue - Between osteoclast(break down the cells) and osteoblast (build up on osteoclasts to crush down) Intramembranous vs. Endochondral Ossification Intramembranous Ossification: o The method of bone formation in which bone is formed directly in mesenchyme arrange sheet like layers that resemble membranes Endochondral Ossification o The replacement of cartilage by bone. Also called intracartilaginous ossification o Bone Grow in Length 1) Interstitial growth of cartilage on the epiphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate and 2) Replacement of cartilage on the diaphyseal side of the epiphyseal plate with bone by endochondral ossification Ongoing replacement of old osseous tissue by new osseous tissue o Osteoclast remove mineral and collagen (reabsorption) o Osteoblast deposit mineral and collagen (deposit) PTH and Calcitonin regulate bone remodeling PTH: A hormone secreted by the chief (principal) cells of the parathyroid glands that increases blood calcium level and decreases blood phosphate level. Calcitonin A hormone produced by the Para follicular cells of the thyroid gland that can lower the amount of blood calcium and phosphates by inhibiting bone reabsorption (breakdown of bone extracellular matrix) and by accelerating uptake of calcium and phosphates into bone matrix Chapter 9 Joints Anatomical & Functional significance of Fibrous Joints Fibrous Joints: Sutures - Location: only in the skull - Structural classification: fibrous - Functional classification: synarthroses – not movable - Synostosis: replaced by osseous tissue during infancy o Frontal bone – 2 halves upon birth Fibrous Joints: Syndesmoses - Location: between tibula and fibia (lower legs), and ulna and radius (lower arms) - Structural classification: Fibrous tissue connected as a bundle (ligament) or sheet (interosseous membrane) - Functional classification: amphiarthrosis – slight movement - Compared to sutures: greater distance between articulating bones and denser fibrous connective tissue than in a suture Fibrous Joints: Gomphosis - Location: between roots of teeth and their sockets (alveoli) - Structural classification: fibrous tissue )(dense irregular connective tissue) connected as the periodontal ligament) – slight movement - Functional classification: Amphiarthrosis Major Structural Components of Synovial Joints Synovial Joint is the most common joint and complex, and is diathrosis - Articular cartilage – hyaline cartilage - Articular capsule- dense irregular tissue o Fibrous capsule o Synovial membrane - Joint (synovial) cavity - Synovial fluid - Accessory structures o Reinforcing ligaments o Bursae Fibrous vs. Cartilaginous vs. Synovial Joints Fibrous Joints: - A joint that allows little or no movement, such as a suture or a syndesmosis. - Sutures (Synarthroses), Syndesmoses (Amphiarthrosis), Gomphosis (Amphiarthrosis) - The structure and functions of the three types of fibrous joints. Cartilaginous - A joint without a synovial (joint) cavity where the articulating bones are held tightly together by cartilage, allowing little or no movement. - Synchondroses (synarhroses), Symphyses (Amphiarthroses) Synovial Joints – Diarthroisis - The two layers of the articular capsule—the fibrous membrane and the synovial membrane. - Synovial fluid lubricates the joint cavity between the synovial membrane and the articular cartilage - A fully movable or diarthrotic joint in which a synovial (joint) cavity is present between the two articulating bones. Chapter 10 – Muscle Tissue Functions and Properties 1. Functions 1. producing body movement 2. Stabilizing body positions 3. storing and moving substances through body 4. producing heat 2. Properties 1. Electrical excitability 2. Contractility 3. Extensibility 4. Elasticity Muscle Similarities - Muscle fibers- elongated muscle cells - ACTIN and MYOSIN - two myofilaments involved in muscle contraction - Muscle terminology is similar o MYO-, MYS-, and SARCO- all refer to muscle o Sarcolemma – muscle plasma membrane o Sarcoplasm – cytop
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