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Anatomy II Midterm I Review

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Health Science
HLSC 1201U
Elita P.

Anatomy & Physiology II Midterm I Review Part One: The Endocrine System 1. Functions of the Endocrine System - Releases hormones into systemic circulation that affect specific target cells - Response is slower than neurotransmitters - Duration is longer (minutes – hours – days) 2. Hypothalamus - Major Regulator of Homeostasis - Control of ANS - Production of hormones - Regulation of emotional and behavioral patterns - Regulation of eating and drinking - Control of body temperature - Regulate circadian rhythms and states of consciousness - Regulates nervous system for short term response and endocrine system for long term response 3. Types of Hormones i. Lipid Soluble (Steroid) Hormones ii. Water Soluble (amino acid based) hormones 4. Lipid Soluble Hormones - Binds to transport proteins in blood. Increases H2O solubility, Slows rate of loss in urine, provides a ready reserve of hormones in the blood - Receptors are located inside target cell - Changes gene expression in order to cause protein synthesis 5. Water Soluble Hormones - Freely soluble in blood - Receptors are located outside target cell - Binds to a receptor outside the cell and activates something inside the cell to cause a response 6. Action of Hormones - Synthesis: production - Stimulatory: increase speed - Or opposite 7. Influence on Hormonal Activity - More receptors = more hormones = increased effect - some neurotransmitters have tighter fit with receptors, and same with hormones and their receptors - Permissive Effect: one hormone will allow a second to function (Epinephrine needs thyroid hormones to strongly stimulate lipolysis) - Synergistic Effect: one hormone intensifies effect of other (FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) and Estrogen are both needed to develop Oacytes in Ovaries) - Antagonistic Effect: one hormone inhibits and reduces the effect of the other (Insulin and Glucagon) 8. Control of Hormones - Neural control: nerves from CNS activates the receptors in adrenal gland and leads to the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine - Humoral Control: hormone secretion is regulated by something in the blood (Ca2+ levels regulate release of calcitonin and PTH) nd - Tropin or tropic: hormones which cause release of 2 hormone - Inhibiting hormone: stops release of 2 hormone nd - Releasing Hormone: increases release of 2 hormone 9. Hypothalamus – Pituitary Axis - Hypothalamus is major integrating link between NS and ES - Controls activity of Pituitary gland - Infundibulum connects Hypothalamus to Pituitary - Anterior Pituitary is larger than Posterior 10. Anterior Pituitary Hormones - Human Growth Hormone: stimulates Liver, muscles, cartilage, bone, and other tissues to synthesize and secrete insul
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