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HLSC 1201U Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Stratified Squamous Epithelium, Lingual Lipase, Alveolar Macrophage

Course Code
HLSC 1201U
Elita P.
Study Guide

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Anatomy & Physiology Midterm II Consolidated Overview
Part One: The Respiratory System
1. Functions of the Respiratory System
- Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
- Regulates pH by eliminating CO2
- Excretes water and heat
- Filters air
- Aids in vocals
- Aids in sense of smell
2. Upper Respiratory System
- Nose
- Pharynx
- Nasal and Oral Cavities
3. Lower Respiratory System
- Larynx
- Trachea
- Bronchi
- Lungs
4. Conducting Zone
- Conduct air into lungs while filtering, warming, and moistening it
- Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles
5. Respiratory Zone
- Exchange fresh O2 with waste CO2 in the lungs
- Lungs (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts & sacs, alveoli)

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6. The Nose
- Externally composed of
a bony framework
(Ethmoid Bone) and
Fibrous Cartillage tissue
- Internally composed of:
a large Nasal Cavity
(containing mucous
membrane and muscle
that aid in conducting,
warming, filtering, and
moistening incoming
air), a Vestibule, and a Nasal Septum
- The nose allows for air to enter the R.S, and it warms, moistens, and filters
inhaled air. Also is primary structure for Olfactory Epithelium (Sense of Smell).
- Air enters in through External Naris, to the Nasal Vestibule, then splits 3 ways
(Superior, Middle, Inferior Nasal Conchae and Nasal Meatuses) which increases
the surface area of the air so that it can be warmed (by superficial blood vessels),
filtered (by the hairs), and moisten (mucous helps retain water which moistens
the air)
7. The Sinuses
- Skull contains various sinuses
- Sinuses help to lighten the skull and aid in warming, filtering, and moistening of
the air entering the Respiratory System
- They also produce mucous
- Also act as a resonating chamber for our voice

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- When we get a cold and the sinuses are plugged with mucous, that is why our
voices sound odd.
8. The Pharynx (Throat)
- Tube of muscle that connects to the: Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly, and
Larynx and Esophagus inferiorly
- Each section of the Pharynx has a different lining depending on function
Respiratory System
Digestive System
Continuous with the nasal
cavity (cilia helps move
mucous through the nose;
exchanges air to equalize air
Does not have anything to do
with digestive sys.
Stratified squamous epithelium so that when you eat food
you still have cells there when the large food particles crape
across it (wear and tear); Common pathway for air, food and
drink (both systems)
Directs air to the Trachea
Directs food and drink to the
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