Anatomy II Midterm II Review Notes
Anatomy II Midterm II Review Notes

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University of Ontario Institute of Technology
Health Science
HLSC 1201U
Elita P.

Anatomy & Physiology Midterm II Consolidated Overview Part One: The Respiratory System 1. Functions of the Respiratory System - Exchange of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide - Regulates pH by eliminating CO 2 - Excretes water and heat - Filters air - Aids in vocals - Aids in sense of smell 2. Upper Respiratory System - Nose - Pharynx - Nasal and Oral Cavities 3. Lower Respiratory System - Larynx - Trachea - Bronchi - Lungs 4. Conducting Zone - Conduct air into lungs while filtering, warming, and moistening it - Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles 5. Respiratory Zone - Exchange fresh O w2th waste CO in 2he lungs - Lungs (respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts & sacs, alveoli) 1 | P a g e 6. The Nose - Externally composed of a bony framework (Ethmoid Bone) and Fibrous Cartillage tissue - Internally composed of: a large Nasal Cavity (containing mucous membrane and muscle that aid in conducting, warming, filtering, and moistening incoming air), a Vestibule, and a Nasal Septum - The nose allows for air to enter the R.S, and it warms, moistens, and filters inhaled air. Also is primary structure for Olfactory Epithelium (Sense of Smell). - Air enters in through External Naris, to the Nasal Vestibule, then splits 3 ways (Superior, Middle, Inferior Nasal Conchae and Nasal Meatuses) which increases the surface area of the air so that it can be warmed (by superficial blood vessels), filtered (by the hairs), and moisten (mucous helps retain water which moistens the air) 7. The Sinuses - Skull contains various sinuses - Sinuses help to lighten the skull and aid in warming, filtering, and moistening of the air entering the Respiratory System - They also produce mucous - Also act as a resonating chamber for our voice 2 | P a g e - When we get a cold and the sinuses are plugged with mucous, that is why our voices sound odd. 8. The Pharynx (Throat) - Tube of muscle that connects to the: Nasal cavity and mouth superiorly, and Larynx and Esophagus inferiorly - Each section of the Pharynx has a different lining depending on function Respiratory System Digestive System Nasopharynx Continuous with the nasal Does not have anything to do cavity (cilia helps move with digestive sys. mucous through the nose; exchanges air to equalize air pressure) Oropharynx Stratified squamous epithelium so that when you eat food you still have cells there when the large food particles crape across it (wear and tear); Common pathway for air, food and drink (both systems) Laryngopharynx Directs air to the Trachea Directs food and drink to the Esophagus 3 | P a g e 9. The Larynx (Voicebox) - Allows for production of vocal sounds - Reroutes food and air to correct paths - Produces sound with series of cartilage pieces connected by ligaments - Thyroid cartilage (Adam’s apple), Arytenoid and Cricoid cartilages - Voice box is also called the Glottis - When air goes through the Larynx (vibrating the vocal chords), the vocal chords open and shut to modify the flow of air which creates different sounds 10. The Trachea Layer Cell Type Function Epithelium Goblet cells Produce mucous (traps (Pseudostratified) small dust particles) Cilia (hair-like) Propels mucous towards the pharynx Submucosa Produce Mucous Sheets Adventitia Hyaline Cartilage (C – Provide a rigid structure Rings) (so it doesn’t collapse when air passes through) Elastic Connective Tissue Allows expansion and contraction of esophagus without blocking off the air 4 | P a g e 11. Zone Transition - Asthma medications are called Bronchiole Dialators Bronchi Bronchioles Epithelium Membrane Pseudostratified Columnar Simple Cuboidal with with Goblet cells (produce Macrophages (Single layer so mucous to trap dust) it is thin, macrophages remove particles and microbe) Cartilage Predominantly (allows max Almost none (if a person has passage of air without an asthma attack, there is no collapsing) rigid pathway to keep the airway patent Smooth Muscle Very Little (doesn’t need it) Circular Smooth Muscle (Contracts if a person is having an asthma attack) 5 | P a g e 12. The Lungs - The left Lung is 10% smaller to allow room for the Heart - The right Lung is slightly shorter to allow room for the Liver - Each Lung in its own anatomically distinct chamber (so that a collapse of one Lung doesn’t mean a collapse of another Lung) - Parietal Pleura: Superficial layer. Covers the Thoracic wall and superior face of the Diaphragm - Visceral Pleura: Deep or pulmonary layer. Covers the external lung surface - Pleural Cavity: Contains pleural fluid (reduces friction with lung movement, and encourages adhesion of pleural lining) - Pulmonary Arteries – supply systemic venous blood to be oxygenated (from right ventricle) - Pulmonary Veins – carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to the heart (to left atrium) - Terminal bronchioles → respiratory bronchioles → alveolar ducts → alveoli (alveolar sac-clusters of alveoli with common alveolar duct)(where gas exchange takes place 6 | P a g e 13. The Alveolar Sacs - Type I Alveolar: form a Simple Squamous Epithelium, this is where gas exchange take place as well as alveolar macrophage which removes dust from the air - Type II Alveolar – secrete alveolar fluid which keeps the surface between the air and cells moist as well as provide a surfactant to lower surface tension - The Alveolar Sacs can collapse without the surfactant, and so the next breath you take it won’t expand and you will not have gas exchange - Respiratory Membrane: boundary between the respiratory and the cardiovascular system (comprised of four layers) - Endothelium: inside of capillaries, very thin to allow rapid gas exchange - Basement membrane: holds the endothelium together, very thin - After the carbon dioxide crosses from the blood vessels through the Endothelium and Basement Membrane, it will go through the Basement Membrane of the Epithelial membrane of the Alveoli - From the basement membrane of the epithelial the carbon dioxide will go to the Type I Alveolar Cells - Type 1 alveolar cells: promotes gas exchange - In between the two layers there is interstitial space - The 4 layers of the Respiratory membrane is only 0.5 micro meters thick to allow rapid diffusion of gases 7 | P a g e 14. Respiration - Three Steps (Pulmonary Ventilation, External (Pulmonary) Respiration, Internal (Tissue) Respiration) - Pulmonary Ventilation: Air exchange between air and Alveoli - External Respiration: exchange of gases between Alveoli and Pulmonary Arteries - Internal Respiration: exchange of gases between systemic capillaries and tissues - We can breathe because air moves from an area of high pressure to an area of low pressure - For inhalation, Alveolar pressure must be lower than Atmospheric pressure. Volume of chest cavity increases during this process - For exhalation, Alveolar pressure must be higher than Atmospheric pressure. Volume of chest cavity increases during this process. - There are 3 other factors affecting Respiration - The first is the Surface Tension of Alveolar fluid - This surface tension must be overcome for inhalation to occur - Surface tension accounts for ~ 2/3 of elastic recoil in exhalation - Surfactant, a detergent like complex, reduces surface tension - Respiratory Distress Syndrome: premature infants that lack the ability to make and secrete the surfactant, so they cannot inhale because they cannot expand their lungs to overcome the surface tension - The second is Lung Compliance - High compliance means lungs and chest wall expand easily - Determined by (1) Distensibility (elasticity) and (2) Surface tension - The third is Airway Resistance - Depends on diameter of Bronchioles & smooth muscle tone - Bronchi dilated – decreased resistance - Bronchi constricted – increased resistance - Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) & Asthma - Anything that either alters the diameter of the conducting regions leading to the lung or that actually acts as a physical barrier is classified under COPD 8 | P a g e 15. Nervous System Control - Quiet breathing is controlled under autonomic system - Forceful breathing has links to Neurons for voluntary control - Breathing is controlled by the different areas of the Medullary Respiratory Center - The Medullary Rhymicity Area has an Inspiratory area and an Expiratory area - The Pneumotaxic Area provides inhibitory input to Inspiratory area to shorten inspiration and also increases breathing rate - The Apneustic Area provides stimulatory input to inspiratory area to prolong inspiration and decreases breathing rate. - During normal quiet breathing, the inspiratory area is the only area that is involved; the average time for inhalation (active) is 2 seconds, and the average time in between inhalation is 3 seconds, so for a period of 2 seconds nerves start firing action potentials causing the diaphragm and intercostals muscles contract leading to an inhalation, then for the 3 seconds in between there is no nerve firing activity at all, the muscles relax, elastic recoil occurs, and we get exhalation (passive process) - Chemoreceptors regulate activity in the Medullary Respiratory Center - The Central Chemoreceptor is located in the Medulla and responds to pH and CO 2 pressures - The Parietal Chemoreceptor is located in the aortic and carotid bodies and responds to pH, CO pr2ssures, and altitude. - CO + H O ↔ H CO ↔ H + HCO + - 2 2 2 3 3 16. Transport of CO a2d O 2 - Only a very small amount of oxygen is dissolved in plasma (2%), the rest is transported in accommodation with hemoglobin (iron part of heme) - 7% of carbon dioxide is dissolved in the plasma - 70% of carbon dioxide exists as bicarbonate ions - 23% of carbon dioxide is transported bound to the hemoglobin (amino acid chains that form the backbone of the heme) - Therefore oxygen and carbon dioxide are not competing with each other for spots on hemoeglobin - After the first oxygen molecule binds to iron the iron molecule changes shape and O 2ptake is facilitated until all four molecules are bound. If one molecule is unloaded, the unloading of the next is enhanced. The affinity of Hb for O changes 2 9 | P a g e with the amount of O sat2ration and makes the loading and unloading of O 2 efficient. - Partial pressure of oxygen (PO ) is2the most important factor that determines how much O bin2s to hemoglobin - Partial pressure of a gas (the pressure exerted by a gas) is directly proportional to its percentage in a mixture of gases. 17. Adult Hemoglobin (HbA) vs. Fetal Hemoglobin (HbF) - HbF has substantially greater affinity for oxygen than HbA WHY? Because the oxygen availability to the fetus is different than the maternal supply (the mum gets the oxyegn from the air (about 100 mmHg) by the time the blood gets to the fetus, the oxygen available is depleted, so fetal hemoglobin has to be better at binding to oxygen at lower levels of partial pressures of oxygen) 10 | P a g e Part II: The Digestive System 1. Questions to Think About - Describe the features of the mouth that specialize for mechanical digestion. - Where is saliva formed and what is it composed of? - How can swallowing occur even if we are upside down? What are the forces at work? - What are the structural and functional features of mucosa and submucosa? - What are the different cell types in the gastric glands and what do they do? - What are the cephalic, gastric and intestinal stimuli of gastric acid production? - How do gastrin and acetylcholine affect pH of stomach contents? - What are the functions of the cardiac and pyloric sphincters? - What are the structural and functional differences between the esophagus and stomach? - Why does the digestive system need both an intrinsic and extrinsic nervous system? 2. Essential Terms - Digestion: process of mechanically or chemically breaking down food - Absorption: passage of small molecules into blood and lymph - Digestive (GI) System: organs which carry out process of digestion and absorption - Metabolism: all the chemical reactions of the body - GI: Gastro Intestinal 3. Digestion Process - (1) Ingestion of food through mouth - (2) Food is broken down into various components - (3) Secretion, Mixing, and Propulsion - (4) Absorption of Nutrients (90% in Small Intestine, and 10% in Stomach and Large Intestine) - (5) Elimination via Defecation 11 | P a g e 4. Accessory Digestive Organs - Provide aid in mechanical and chemical digestion - Teeth - Tongue - Salivary Glands - Liver - Gall Bladder - Pancreas - Only the Teeth and Tongue come into contact with food 5. The Perotineum - Largest Serrous membrane in the body - Peritoneal cavity contains serrous or peritoneal fluid similar to pericardial fluid. Peritoneal fluid lubricates organs - Accumulation of fluid can occur (Ascites). Causes beer gut look 12 | P a g e - 6. Layers of the Digestive Tract Anatomy Physiology Mucosa (Direct Epithelium Stratified Squamous Protective Barrier contact with food, (mouth, pharynx, or Bolus, or Chyme) esophagus, anus) Simple columnar Secretion and (stomach, intestine) Absorption Lamina Propia Areolar Connective Accepts absorbed Tissue with blood nutrients and and lymph vessels distributes throughout Mucus Associated Immune Response Lymphatic Tissue (MALT) Muscularis Smooth Muscle Increases S.A, Mucosae Folds digestion, and absorption Submucosa Submucosal Plexus Network of Nerves Control Secretions of glands Blood and Lymph Network of blood vessels and lymph vessels Muscularis Muscle Skeletal muscle Voluntary (mouth to mid swallowing and esophagus; anal defecation sphincter) smooth muscle Involuntary control (circular and - Break down and longitudinal layers) propel food along digestive tract Myenteric Plexus Network of Nerves Control smooth muscles for peristalsis Serosa (Visceral Epithelium Areolar and Simple Peritoneal fluid Perotineum) Squamous (below (reduces friction) diaphragm) 13 | P a g e - “Myo – “ = Muscle - “- Enteric” = Gastro intestinal 7. Nervous System of Digestive System - Extrinsic = external control of Digestive system - Sensory neuron sense chemical and mechanical nature of food - 14 | P a g e 8. The Mouth - Composition: skeletal muscle and mucous membrane - Location: Helps form floor of oral cavity - Lingual Frenulum: attaches tongue to floor of mouth and stops it from being swallowed - Papillae some function as taste buds, others help in moving food within mouth - Lingual glands + lipase – starts digestion of triglycerides - Hard palate forms boundary between nasal cavity and oral cavity - Soft palate forms boundary between Oral and Nasal Pharynx - 3 pairs of salivary glands: - Composition: 99.5% water. pH: Slightly acidic - 0.5% other solutes: Ions, Mucus, Immunoglobulin A (antibodies), Amylase (Enzymes), Lysosymes, defensins - Salivary glands cleanse, dissolve, and begin break down of starch with Amylase - Controlled mostly by ANS - Parasympathetic NS increases saliva secretion - Sympathetic NS decreases saliva secretion 9. The Teeth - Crown is visible above gumline - Root is embedded in jawbone - Neck is narrow region near gumline - Enamel is protective covering that protects from wear and tear and acid erosion. Hardest type of bone in body - Dentin is harder than standard bone, but not as hard as enamel - Cementum attaches root to Periodontal ligament - Ligament attaches tooth to bone (Shock absorbing) 15 | P a g e 10. The Pharynx in Digestion - The Uvula lifts up to cover entrance into Nasal Pharynx while swallowing - The Epiglottis closes so food doesn’t enter the Trachea or Larynx 11. The Esophagus - Function: Secretes mucous, transports food – no enzymes produced, no absorption - Mucosa – protection against wear and tear - Submucosa - Muscularis divided in thirds - Superior 1/3 skeletal muscle - Middle 1/3 skeletal and smooth muscle - Inferior 1/3 smooth muscle - 2 sphincters – Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) and Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) - Adventitia – no Serosa – attaches to surroundings 12. The Stages of Swallowing (Deglutition) - (1) Mouth – Voluntary - (2) Pharyngeal – Involuntary - (3) Esophageal – Involuntary 16 | P a g e 13. The Stomach - Function: mixing chamber and holding reservoir - Structure: Same 4 layers - Mucosa – gastric glands open into gastric pits - Exocrine gland cells – mucous neck cells (mucus), parietal cells (intrinsic factor and HCl), and chief cells (pepsinogen and gastric lipase) - Endocrine cell - G cell (gastrin) - Submucosa rd - Muscularis – additional 3 inner oblique layer - Serosa – part of visceral peritoneum - Peristaltic movement (30 sec) causes mixing waves - Chyme released in process of gastric emptying into Pylorus - Mucosal Neck Cells secrete mucous - Parietal Cells secrete HCl and absorb vitamin B12 - Chief Cells secrete Pepsinogen & Gastric Lipase - G Cells secrete Gastrin - Stomach needs to protect itself from its own acid - It utilizes a Mucosal Barrier - Neutralizing (alkaline) mucous on the stomach wall - Tight junctions to prevent gastric juice from getting between Goblet cells - Damaged mucosa is shed and replaced every 3-6 days! - 14. Chemical Digestion - Mouth: Salivary Amylase (Starch) and Lingual Lipase (Lipids) - Esophagus: None - Stomach: Acid, Pepsin (Proteins), & Lipase (Lipids) - Small Intestine: Brush border enzymes, Pancreatic Enzymes - Large Intestine: Bacterial 17 | P a g e 15.The Small Intestine - Dual Functions - Digestion: mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods - Absorption: Passage of digested nutrients from Gastointestinal Tract into Blood or Lymph - Length 3 m (10 ft) living & 6.5 m (21 ft) dead - Has multiple divisions and Sphincters - Duodenum: Segment where bile and pancreatic juice mix with chyme - Jejunum: Major absorbing segments - Ileum: Major absorbing segments - Pyloric sphincter: Connection to stomach - Sphincter of Oddi: Controls the amount of bile and pancreatic juice entering the small intestine - Ileocecal sphincter: Connection to large intestine - Small Intestine has folds called Plicae Circulares that help to greatly increase the surface area inside 18 | P a g e 16. Carbohydrate Digestion - So far … Salivary amylase → disaccharides + a-dextrins (short-chain glucose polymers) - Pancreatic amylase - Brush border enzymes : - -dextrinase cuts off one glucose unit at a time - Sucrase breakdowns sucrose → glucose + fructose - Lactase breakdowns lactose → glucose + galactose - Maltase breakdowns maltose → glucose + glucose 17.Protein Digestion - So far… HCl and Gastric Pepsin - Pancreatic Enzymes (Elastase, Trypsin & Chymotrypsin) - Brush Border Enzymes like: - Aminopeptidases - Carboxypeptidases - Dipeptidases - Absorption: similar to carbohydrates 18. Lipid Digestion - So far… - Lingual lipase and Gastric Lipase - Absorption: via simple diffusion - Requires transport mechanism in Lumen of small intestine and bloodstream: - Amphipathic bile salts (Emulsification process) - Chylomicron - Lipids are transported via Lipoproteins - HDL’s & LDL’s 19 | P a g e 19. Daily Volumes - 9.3L comes from ingestion (2.3L) and GI secretions (7.0L) - Most absorbed in small intestine, some in large intestine - Only 100ml excre
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