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AP Midterm 2 Review.docx

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Health Science
HLSC 1201U
Elita P.

AP Midterm 2 Review Ch. 26 Respiratory Anatomy Functions: gas exchange, pH regulation, speech, olfaction (smell), also warms, filters and humidifies air Upper respiratory tract - Outside of thorax - Nasal cavity, pharynx (nasopharynx, oropharynx, laropharynx) Lower respiratory tract - Trachea, L/R primary bronchi, bronchioles Nose exterior - Bony, cartilaginous frame - Cartilage (soft) is “ala”; sides of nose is “ala fibrofatty tissue” (not cartilage) Nose interior - Seperated from mouth by palatine bones - Septum (perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, vomer, vomeronasal cartilages, septal nasal cartilage), splits nose in two nostrils Ch. 27 Respiratory Physiology Ch. 28 Digestive Anatomy - Mucus: Thick, slippery material secreted by mucous membranes that keeps the membrane moist and protected [mucus slime] - Mucous membrane: Epithelial membrane that lines body surfaces opening directly to the exterior and secretes mucous - The main organs of the digestive system form a tube that goes all the way through hthe ventral cavities of the body. It is open at both ends. This tube is referred to as the alimentary tract. - The term gastrointestinal tract refers only to the stomach and intestines but is sometimes used in reference to the entire alimentary canal - The GI tract is a tube with walls fashioned of four layers of tissues: mucous lining, submucosal coat of connective tissue (with embedded blood vessels), muscular layer, and a fibroserous layer. The mouth: Oral/Buccal cavity - Formation of the oral cavity: the lips, cheeks (side walls), the tongue and its muscles (floor), and the hard and soft palate (roof). Lips - Covered externally by skin and internally by mucous membrane that continues into the oral cavity and lines the mouth. The junction between skin and mucous membrane is highly sensitive and easily irritated. The upper lip is marked near the midline by the philtrum which ends at the junction between skin and mucous membrane in a slight prominence called the tubercle. The term fissure is often used to describe a cleft or groove between or separating anatomical structures. Therefore, when the lips are closed, the line of contact between them is called the oral fissure. - The lips keep food in the mouth while it is being chewed and help sense temperature and texture of food before entering the mouth. The lips are needed for many speech sounds. Hard palate – Contains bone under epithelium (two palatine bones, two maxillae) Soft palate – Contains muscular tissue, parts the mouth and nasopharynx - The soft palate consists of muscle arranged in the shape of an arch. The opening of the arch leads from the mouth into the oropharynx and is named the fauces. Suspended from the midpoint of the posterior border of the arch is a small cone- shaped process, the uvula. Cheeks - The cheeks form the lateral boundaries of the oral cavity. They are continuous with the lips in front and are lined by mucous membrane that is reflected onto the gingiva, or gums, and the soft palate. The cheeks form in large part by the buccinators muscle – sandwiched with adipose, tissue between the outer skin and mucous membrane lining. Teeth - The organs of mastication (chewing). Designed to cut, tear, and grind ingested food so it can be mixed with saliva and swallowed. Chewing increases SA that can be acted on by digestive enzymes. The tongue: - A solid mass of skeletal muscle components (intrinsic muscle) covered by a mucous membrane Root, tip, and body - The tongue has papillae at the rear and side (dorsal/lateral) surfaces Folate papillae Filiform papillae Fungiform papillae Lingual frenulum – Attaches tongue to base of mouth The salivary glands - The salivary glands are outside the alimentary canal and convey their exocrine secretions by way of ducts in the glands into the lumen of the tract. The mucous and serous cells seen in the compound tubuloalveolar gland together secrete a mixture of fluids that are then modified by the duct cells on their way out of the salivary gland. - Three pairs of major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) secrete apprx. 1 L of saliva per day. - The minor salivary glands (Buccal glands) that occur in the mucosa lining in the cheeks and mouth contribute less than 5% of the total salivary volume but contribute to hygiene and comfort in the mouth tissues. Parotid glands – (Pyramidal parotids) The largest of the paired salivary glands - Located between the skin and underlying masseter muscle in front of and below the external ear - Produce a watery (serous) type of saliva containing enzymes but not mucous. - Parotid ducts are about 5 cm (2 in) long and penetrate the buccinators muscle on each side and open into the mouth through the parotid papilla opposite the upper second molars. - on side of cheeks, no mucous cells present, primary enzyme is amylase (digests starch) Submandibular glands – Enzymes and mucous saliva, one on each side of mouth - Mixed or compound glands because they contain both serous (enzyme) and mucous- producing elements - Located just below mandibular angle - Irregular in form, about the size of a walnut - The ducts of the submandibular glands open into the mouth on either side of the lingual frenulum Sublingual glands - Are the smallest of the main salivary glands - Lie in front of the submandibular glands, under the mucous membrane covering the floor of the mouth - Serous cells Mucous cells Lumen of duct Wall of the GI tract Myenteric plexus Muscularis – The muscular layer; a thick layer of muscle tissue that wraps around the submucosal; characterized by an inner layer of circular and an outer layer of longitudinal smooth muscle. Contains nerves organized into a plexus (myenteric
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