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Intro to Movement Neuroscience Consolidated Midterm One Notes

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Health Sciences
HLSC 2400U
Dr.Kevin Power

Neuroscience Midterm I Consolidated Notes Part One: Intro Introduction  Diagram drawn by DaVinci to represent proportions of the body  Movement Neuroscience: How the CNS coordinates with the rest of the body to execute various functions Important People  Aristotle o Came up with the term “Kinesiology” o Known as “Father of Kinesiology” o Means “study of human movement”  Santiago Ramon y Cajal o Stained individual cells to show that they were a network and not just a continuous entity o Discovered that cells communicate via Synapse by staining them using the Golgi Method o Won a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906  Sir Charles Sherrington o Won Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1932 o The motor neuron is the cell that is in the spinal cord that extends out to stimulate the muscle fibers to contract o Referred to the spinal motor neuron as the “Final Common Pathway” because it is the final structure that tells the muscles to contract or not 1 Voluntary Activation of Muscle  Brain sends signal through Supraspinal drive (through spinal cord) which sends signal through central drive (through nerves) to the muscles  Supraspinal: above spinal cord  Motor neurons send signal through nerves to make muscle contract  If you hold an enfant with their feet touching a surface, they will automatically start moving their legs as if trying to walk  Also works with spinal cord injuries. If someone has a partial spinal cord injury, it is possible for them to learn to walk again through physio and Bodyweight Supported Treadmill Training  Sensory input from the treadmill to the feet and legs going through range of motion helps Divisions of Nervous System  CNS = Brain and Spinal Cord o Integration, processing, and coordination of sensory data and motor commands o Higher Functions  PNS: o Parts of the nervous system not encased within the vertebrae or skull o Sensory or afferent division with sensory neurons  Brings sensory information from PNS to CNS o Motor or Efferent division with Motor neurons  Brings motor commands to peripheral tissue  Neurons o Approximately 100 Billion o The business part of nervous system (Grey Matter)  Specialized cells for rapid communication; reception, transduction, and conduction of stimuli  Various types of Neurons  Sensory, Motor, Interneurons 2 Classes of Neurons  Afferent Neuron o Sends signal toward the CNS. Generates action potentials from sensory receptors at its peripheral end  Efferent Neuron o Sends signals away from the CNS to an Effector organ  Interneuron o Found entirely within the CNS. It lies between afferent and efferent neurons 3 Part Two: Neuroanatomy The Spinal Cord 4  Gray matter horns o Posterior (Dorsal) Horns o Anterior (Ventral) Horns  White matter columns o Types  Anterior  Posterior  Lateral o Form Tracts  Ascending  Descending  The name of the tract often indicates its location in the white matter and where it begins and ends  White matter contains both sensory and motor tracts The Human Brain  Rostral: Toward the forehead  Caudal: Toward the Spinal cord  Major Parts o Cerebrum  83% of brain volume  Lobes: Frontal, Temporal, Occipital, Parietal o Cerebellum  Contains 50% of neurons  Brain weighs 3 – 3.5 pounds  Means “little brain” o Brain stem  Continuation of Spinal Cord  Medulla, Pons, and Midbrain 5 The Cerebrum  The “seat of intelligence”  Anatomy o Cerebral Cortex  Grey Matter (where neurons are)  Highly Cellular  Varies in thickness (1.5 – 4 mm) o White matter fiber tracts (Hemispheres communicate via these) o Gyri  Cortical folds (bulges or convolutions) o Sulci  Shallow grooves that separate various Gyri o Fissures  Deep grooves  Longitudinal Fissure separates right and left hemisphere  Central Sulcus: Separates Primary Motor Area (Pre – Central Gyrus) and the Primary Somatosensory Area (Post – Central Gyrus) o It is an anatomical landmark to distinguish the motor from the sensory o Brain has Sulci to increase the surface area 6 Frontal Lobe  Primary Motor Area (Motor Homunculus) o Located in Pre – Central Gyrus o Stimulation results in discrete movements of all muscles concerned with movement on opposite side of the body o Pre – Motor Area tells motor cortex to activate o If damaged, the brain’s ability to initiate movement will be affected  Pre – Motor Area o Large muscle group movements o External cues for skilled movement trigger response that directs PMA in its execution  Supplementary Motor Area o Located on medial surface of hemisphere (extension of Pre – motor area) o Responds to internal cues (motor planning) o Motor memory 7 The Parietal Lobe  Primary Somatosensory Area (Sensory Homunculus) o Area for conscious perception of pain, temperatures, touch, pressure, and proprioception  Lesions to this area would result in loss of sensation from whatever area that point controlled Cerebral White Matter  White Matter Tracts o Commissural Tracts  Connect Gyri in one hemisphere to corresponding Gyri in the other hemisphere (Ex. Corpus Callosum) o Association Tracts  Conduct nerve impulses between Gyri in the same hemisphere o Projection Tracts  Conducts nerve impulses from the cerebrum to the lower parts of the CNS  White matter is mainly composed of Axons 8 The Basal Ganglia  When dissection occurs, it is very difficult to distinguish due to layout  A disease related to the Basal Ganglia is Parkinson’s Disease  Lack of Dopamine from the Dopanamergic cells causes problems with motor output (unstable, tremors, etc…)  People have trouble initiating movement and further movement is difficult to maintain  Huntington’s is also associated  Three nuclei deep within each cerebral hemisphere make up basal ganglia o Comprised of:  Globus Pallidus (Internal and External)  Putamen  Caudate Nucleus (Caudate + Putamen = Striatum) o Receives input from motor cortex o Projects back to motor cortex via thalamus o Helps to initiate and terminate smooth movements, suppress unwanted movements and regulate muscle tone  Thalamus is the relay center for the brain 9 The Cerebellum  Latin for “Little Brain”  It is the motor part of the brain that ensures coordination of force, extent, and duration of contraction of muscles o Coordination of somatic motor function o Maintenance of equilibrium and muscle tone o Learning and execution of patterns/instructions of motor activity  The Anterior and Posterior lobes control subconscious aspects of skeletal movement  The Flocculonodular Node on the inferior side contribute to equilibrium and balance 10 The Brainstem  Comprised of the midbrain, the Pons, and the Medulla Oblongata The Medulla Oblongata  A common site for Decussation of ascending and descending tracts  The Decussation point is where one half of the brain crosses over to controlling the opposite half of the body  90% of the axons cross over while 10% go straight down 11 Neuroanatomy Physiology  Cerebral Cortex o Responsible for:  Sensory perception  Voluntary control of movement  Language  Personality traits  Sophisticated mental events, such as thinking, memory, decision making, creativity, and self – consciousness  The Basal Ganglia o Responsible for:  Inhibition of muscle tone  Coordination of slow, sustained movements  Suppression of useless patterns of movements  The Thalamus o Relay station for all synaptic input o Responsible for:  Crude awareness of sensation  Some degree of consciousness  Role in motor control  The Hypothalamus o Responsible for:  Regulation of many homeostatic functions like: Temperature control, Thirst, Urine output, and food intake  Important link between Nervous and Endocrine systems  Extensive involvement with emotion and basic behavioral patterns  The Cerebellum o Responsible for:  Maintenance of equilibrium and muscle tone  Coordination of somatic motor function  Learning and execution of patterns/instructions of motor activity 12  The Brainstem o Comprised of Midbrain, Pons, & Medulla Oblongata o Origin of majority of peripheral cranial nerves o Major Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Digestive control centers o Responsible for:  Regulation of muscle reflexes involved with equilibrium and posture  Reception and integration of all synaptic input from spinal cord  Role in sleep – wake cycle 13 Part Three: Physical & Electrical Properties Introduction  Neurons are the means by which the nervous system communicates o Through electrical impulses caused by movement of different ions which generate currents and thus electrical impulses  Many diseases and/or disorders are linked to alterations in ion channels and thus changes in the electrical properties of neurons o Toxins in blowfish deactivate Sodium ion channels and eventually shut down the nervous system o Gatorade contains electrolytes (Sodium, Potassium, etc…) which are crucial for membrane potentials o Channelopathies: Diseases related to ion channels Anatomy of a Neuron  Dendrites receive the vast majority of the input from other nerve cells  Axon Hillock is responsible for initiation of action potentials  Soma integrates all of the excitatory and inhibitory information  97% of surface area of spinal motor neuron is Dendrites 14 The Plasma Membrane  Plasma membrane has a fluid mosaic model (Proteins within the phospholipids)  These proteins make up the ion channels through which the ions travel through  Channels and proteins move freely and are ever changing  Can change due to things like: Age, disease, electrical activity, etc…  Plasma membrane membrane allows ions to move through channels while stopping unwanted particles from entering  Proteins act as gatekeepers to other ions and particles (Sodium can only travel through sodium channels, etc…)  The fluid mosaic model is a flexible yet sturdy barrier o The arrangement of molecules within the membrane resembles a sea of lipids containing many types of proteins o The lipids act as a barrier to certain substances o The proteins (Channels) act as gatekeepers 15 Ions & Movement  Common error made is to associate the sodium/potassium pump with membrane potential  This only has approximately 5% contribution Types of Ion Channels  Leak Channels (Not Gated) o Always open o Nerve cells have more K than Na leakage channels o As a result, membrane permeability to K is higher  Voltage Gated Channels o Respond to a direct change in the membrane potential o Open or close channel, depending on membrane potential  Ligand Gated Channels o Open and close in response to a chemical stimulus  Modality Gated Ion Channels o Specific to sensory neurons and respond to mechanical forces (Vibration, stret
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