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HLSC 2401U Study Guide - Final Guide: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Sigmund Freud, Motor Skill

Course Code
HLSC 2401U
Meghan Lloyd
Study Guide

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Growth & Development Exam Review Notes
Lecture One: Motor Development
What is Motor Development?
o The change in motor behavior over the lifespan and the processes that
underlie the change
o Dynamic Processes in which a motor behavior emerges from the
many constraints that surround the behavior
o A continuous interplay between the organism and their environment,
each influencing each other
Fundamental Concepts
o Motor Learning
Relatively permanent gains in motor skill capability associated
with practice or experience (not related to age)
o Motor Control
The neural, physical, and behavioral aspects of movement
o Physical Growth
Quantitative increase in size or body mass
o Aging
Process occurring with passage of time, leading to loss of
adaptability or full function and eventually to death
o Constraints
Limit or discourage certain movements while permitting or
encouraging other movements
“Shape” movement
Structural Constraints
Related to the body’s structure
o Height
o Mass
Functional Constraints
Related to behavioral function
o Attention
o Motivation
Environmental Constraints
Outside the body
Properties of the world around us
Global, not task specific
Task Constraints
External to the body
Related to the tasks or skills
o Universality
Individuals in a species show similarity in development
o Variability
Individual differences exist

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Early Philosopher Views of Child Development
o Plato and Aristotle believed that the long term welfare of society
depended on children being raised properly, but they differed in their
o Plato
Emphasized self control and discipline
Believed that children are born with innate knowledge
o Aristotle
Was concerned with fitting child rearing to the needs of the
individual child
Believed that knowledge comes from experience
Later Philosophers
o John Locke
Saw the child as a Tabula Rasa, and advocated first instilling
discipline, then gradually increasing the child’s freedom
o Jean Jacques Rousseau
Argued that parents and society should give the child
maximum freedom from the beginning
The Emergence of Child Development as a Discipline
o Sigmund Freud and John Watson formulated influential theories of
development during this period
o Sigmund Freud
Concluded that biological drives exerted a crucial influence on
o Watson
Argued that children’s behavior arises largely from rewards
and punishments that follow particular behaviors
Nature & Nurture
o Nature
Our biological endowment, especially from genes that we
receive from our parents
o Nurture
The wide range of environments, both physical and social, that
influence our development

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The Active Child
o Children contribute to their own development from early in life and
their contributions increase as they grow older
o Three most important contributions are:
Attention patterns
Use of Language
o Older children and adolescents choose many environments, friends,
and activities for themselves; their choices can exert a large impact on
their future
o Continuous Development
Age related changes occur gradually
o Discontinuous Development
Age related changes include occasional large shifts so that
children of different ages seem qualitatively different
The Sociocultural Context
o Sociocultural Context
Refers to the physical, social, cultural, economic, and historical
circumstances that make up any child’s environment
o Development is affected by ethnicity, race, and socioeconomic status
Individual Differences
o Individual differences among children arise very quickly in
o Children’s genes, their treatment by other people, their subjective
reactions to other people’s treatment of them, and their choice of
environments all contribute to differences among children, even those
within the same family
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