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Altrd Phys: Mech of Disease I Midterm I Study Notes

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Health Science
HLSC 2462U
Holly Taggart- Jones

Intro Lecture Notes Schedule Week 2 Altered Cellular and Tissue Biology Week 3 Genetic Disease Week 4 Alterations in Immunity/ Inflammation Week 5 Hypersensitivities/ Stress and Disease Week 6 Cancer Biology I & II th Week 7 Review and Midterm (October 28 ) Week 8 Neurological Disorders Week 9 Endocrine Disorders Week 10 Hematologic Classes th Dec. 7 Review Class Steps of a Disease Normal Human Physiology Something goes wrong Other things go wrong Chain reactions Clinical Disease Complications Onset of another disease Terminology Etiology: The cause of the illness Acute: Symptoms are short lived and recovery is quick Chronic: Something that lasts more than a few months in duration or could be life long Sequelae: Unwanted outcome Manifestation of a Disease Signs: What you see when diagnosing a patient. Visible signs of the disease Symptoms: Internal experience of the patient. How the patient feels. Altered Cell Biology I Notes Dysplasia is not an adaptive change and is potentially on it’s way to becoming a cancer Dysplasia: Disordered Metaplasia: Cell type is damaged and can’t adapt for itself so another cell morphology takes over Pathogenic Hypertrophy is a result of an injury and is not something that is normally present in the body Atrophy Atrophy: When a tissue is not used, it begins to decrease in size (ex. Muscle atrophy or Renal Atrophy) Muscle atrophy is due to the decrease in stimulation of the muscles by the nervous system. Common in neurological diseases like Multiple Sclerosis or paralysis victim If an individual is bedridden, atrophy will begin to occur after a while, but is reversal. Brain atrophy is irreversible Physiologic Atrophy is something that happens naturally Menopause is the atrophy of the Ovaries that is a Physiologic Atrophy Basic term is “Less work, things shrink” Could be normal or due to a disease or injury Hypertrophy Arnold Schwarzenegger is an example of Physiologic Hypertrophy He worked his skeletal muscles to make them grow bigger Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy is the hypertrophy of the heart It is a problem because the heart has to work harder to pump the blood and will eventually fail. One cause is too much plaque in the arteries Leads to further diseases and complications Hyperplasia You can lose part of your liver and it will regenerate through Hyperplasia Wound healing is a process of Compensatory Hyperplasia Hyperplasia is a regenerative mechanism that the body uses to heal In Hormonal Hyperplasia, the signals are hormones Ex. In pregnancy, there are many examples of Hormonal Hyperplasia Hormonal Hyperplasia can be pathologic Ex. The enlarged prostate as men age due to Protastic Hyperplasia. Presses on urethra, making it hard to urinate and causes a backup towards the bladder. Can result in an infection Hyperplasia can occur in bone tissue as well that can result in nerve and muscle problems Metaplasia Damage in the respiratory tract due to smoking Irritation of Ciliated Epithelial Cells that can lead to cancers We need the mucous in our Respiratory tracts to trap irritants and we need the Ciliated Epithelia to move the contaminated mucous out to rid it from the body Smokers cough is an example of Metaplasia due to the mucous not being able to leave Reversible if smoker quits in time Smokers are therefore more susceptible to cold virus’ Can also occur from second hand smoke, living in cities with poor air quality, running in the winter and breathing in the very cold air Cold winter air while running kills the Ciliated Epithelia Cellular Injury Atypical Dysplasia is irreversible, which is why the tumors need to be excised from the body Exposure to UV light injures the cell, and is a constant battle for the body Cells can die individually or on mass (Necrosis) Ischemia: Decrease in oxygenation Up to 70% of ATP is used to pump sodium out of cell to maintain homeostasis Cell swelling is the first sign of a problem in a cell Chronic Alcohol ingestion can lead to “fatty liver” due to lipid disposition Membrane damage is a point of no return due to the membrane being compromised. Normal cell enzymes escape from cell into blood Hypoxia: low oxygen content within the cell Ischemia leads to Hypoxia Hypoxia is most common factor when a cell is injured Alcohol and chemicals in Cigarettes are poisons and are therefore classified as a chemical injury to the cells ROS: Reactive Oxygen species Electron scavengers. They disrupt important chemical bonding characteristics They are generated in the Mitochondria while generating ATP Antioxidants are nutritional components of vitamins that scavenge the ROS’s People who have lots of antioxidants don’t show the same signs of aging as people who don’t That is why smokers look so much older than they actually are Cell Injury Mechanisms In Vacuolation, cells produce more vacuoles filled with water in an attempt to maintain the ion concentrations Reperfusion is when the blood goes back to the site that is injured and the cells begin to repair Reperfusion injury occurs when the oxygen content is extremely low and when the blood goes rushing back, there can be a greatly increased production of ROS’s Free radicals and reactive oxygen species Electrically uncharged atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron that damage:  Lipid peroxidation  Alteration of proteins  Alteration of DNA  Mitochondria ROS’s can lead to DNA damage which can be Carcinogenic Antioxidants are anti – cancerous in a way Chemical injury  Carbon tetrachloride  Lead  Carbon monoxide  Ethanol  Mercury  Social or street drugs Carbon Tetrachloride is terribly injurious to the Liver. Used to be used in dry cleaning Small amount of mercury in dental work and vaccines Meth, Cocaine, etc… are very injurious to cells Exposure to CCL does damage to the Endoplasmic Reticulum in the 4 Liver by destroying the plasma membrane Can’t transport the lipids from the liver, which can result in “fatty liver” Lipoprotein production is greatly reduced, so the fat just sits in the liver Infectious Injury Pathogenicity of a microorganism – how “good” it is at infecting cells and multiplying Disease-producing potential  Invasion and destruction – Ebola virus, HIV  Toxin production - Tetanospasmin  Production of inflammatory reactions Ebola and HIV destroy the cells Tetanus is a result of the production of the neurotoxin Altered Cell Biology II Notes Manifestations of Cellular Injury Cellular accumulations (infiltrations)  Water  Lipids and carbohydrates  Glycogen  Proteins  Pigments  Calcium  Urate (Gout) Vacuolar Degeneration (Water Accumulation) Lipid Accumulation Happens when the liver cells are injured There is an increase in fatty acids in the liver cells Decreased breakdown of fatty acids due to alcohol damage Decreased production of apoproteins and lipoproteins Decreased transport of lipoproteins out of the cell Lipid accumulation can also occur in the CNS In Tay Sach’s Disease, there is a genetic defect that leads to the buildup of lipids in the neurons Pigment Accumulation Melanin, Hemoproteins, Bilirubin Appears reddish because of the red blood cells being released from the broken blood vessels Other colours are due to other pigments after the red blood cells are broken down via phagocytosis Calcium Infiltration Calcium stores that are normally within the cell are pumped out Calcium release due to injury of the cell We want to keep Calcium sequestered because it is a signaling molecule (Contractions, etc…) Will begin release of Phosphorylating proteins Membrane breakdown can begin with the release of Phosphlipases Accumulation of Calcium within the cell starts to disregulate cell functions When calcium begins to build up, causes a lot of damage Heart valves can become calcified and hard (Dystrophic Calcification) The flaps start knocking together instead of functioning properly. Could lead to a necessary heart valve replacement Psammomma Bodies: a spherical, concentrically laminated mass of calcareous material, usually of microscopic size; such bodies occur in both benign and malignant epithelial and connective-tissue tumors, and are sometimes associated with chronic inflammation Sometimes, when a tumor is bigger, the center is not vascularized, so the cells die from O2deprivation The calcium from the cells begins to build up in small pearl like clusters Metastatic Calcification Results from Hypercalcemia In breast and prostate cancers, the first point of metastasis is the bones In the cancers that metastasize in the bones, it results in Hypercalcemia Urate Accumulation (Gout) Nicknamed “The King’s Disease” or “The Rich Man’s Disease” Comes from high protein intake Build up of Uric acid crystals (Urate) in the joint of the big t
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