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PSYC 1000U
Kimberly Clow

INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY FINAL EXAMINATION NOTES PROLOGUE Psychological Science is Born  December 1879, at Germany‟s University of Leipzig  2 men were helping Wilhelm Wundt, create an experimental apparatus  Wundt was seeking to measure “atoms of the mind” – the fastest and simplest mental processes.  science of psychology organized into different branches or schools of thought  these early schools included structuralism and functionalism  three other schools- Gestalt psychology, behaviourism, and psychoanalysis. Thinking About the Mind‟s Structure  Edward Bradford Titchener introduced structuralism.  structuralism – an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of human mind  Titchener aimed to discover structural elements of mind  Titchener method was to engage people in self-reflective introspection (looking inward)  introspection prove somewhat unreliable, varied from person to person and experience to experience  as introspection waned, so did structuralism Thinking About the Mind‟s Functions  philosopher –psychologist William James thought it more fruitful to consider evolved functions of our thoughts and feelings  James assumed that thinking developed because it was adaptive – it contributed to our ancestors‟ survival  consciousness servers as a function, enables us to consider our past, adjust to our present circumstances, and plan our future  functionalism – school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioural processes function – how they enable us to adapt, flourish and survive  James was a functionalist thus encouraged explorations of down-to-earth emotions, memories, willpower, habits, and moment-to-moment streams of consciousness  In 1890 admitted Mary Calkins into his graduate seminar  Calkins went on to become American Psychological Association‟s first female president in 1905  Washburn synthesized animal behavior research in The Animal Mindi Psychological Science Develops  young science of psychology developed from more established fields of philosophy and biology.  Ivan Pavlov, pioneered study of learning, was Russian physiologist  Sigmund Freud developed influential theory of personality was Austrian physican  Jean Piaget last century‟s most influential observer of children was Swiss biologist  psychology is not easily defined  Sigmund Freud – controversial ideas of this framed personality behaviour and therapist have influenced humanity‟s self -understanding  until 1920s‟ psychology was defined as “science of mental life”  1920s into 1960s John B. Watson later by B.F. Skinner, dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as “scientific study of observable behaviour”  Behaviorism – view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviour without reference to mental processes. Psychologists today agree with (1) and not with (2)  humanistic psychology – historically significant perspective that emphazied growth potential of healthy people and individual‟s potential for personal growth – rebelled against Freudian psychology and behaviourism  Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow found behaviourism‟s focus on learned behaviour too mechanistic  1960s another movement emerged as psychology began to recapture its initial interest in mental process  cognitive revolution supported ideas developed by earlier psychologists  more recently cognitive neuroscience (study of brain activity linked with mental activity) expanded upon those ideas to explore scientifically ways we perceive, process, and remember information  today we define psychology as science of behaviour and mental process  behaviour is anything an organism does  mental process are internal, subjective experiences we infer from behaviour  keyword in psychology‟s definition is science  psychology is less a set of findings than a way of asking and answering questions Psychology‟s Biggest Question  during its short history, psychology wrestled some issues  biggest and most persistent is nature-nurture – controversy over the relative contributions of biology and experience  origins of debate are ancient  Plato (Greek philosopher) assumed that character and intelligence are largely inherited and that certain ideas are inborn  Aristotle countered there is nothing in mind that does not first come in from external world through senses  1600s European psychologists rekindled debate  John Lock suggested that mind is a blank sheet on which experience writes  Rene Descartes disagreed, believing that some ideas are innate  Darwin argues that natural selection shapes behaviours as well as bodies  evolution also has become an important principle for 21 psychology  Darwin believed his theory explained not only animal structures but also animal behaviours  nurture works on what nature endows  human beings are biologically endowed with an enormous capacity to learn and adapt  every psychological event is simultaneously a biological event Psychology‟s Three Main Level of Analysis  each human being is a complex system that is part of a larger social system  but, each of us is also composed of smaller systems (i.e. nervous system, and body organs)  tiered systems suggest level of analysis – differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon  different levels of analysis form an integrated bio psychosocial approach – integrated approach that incorporated biological, psychological, and socio-cultural levels of analysis  each level provides a valuable point of for looking at behavior, yet each by itself is incomplete Biological influences: Psychological Influences:  Natural selection of  Emotional response adaptive traits  Cognitive processing and  Brain mechanisms perceptual interpretations  Hormonal influences  Learned fears and other learned expectations Behavior or mental process Social-cultural influences:  Presence of others  Cultural, societal, and family Psychology‟s Subfields expectations  cluster of subfields we call psychology has less unity than most other sciences  psychology is a meeting round for different disciplines  tribe of psychology is united by a common quest: describing and explaining behaviour & mind underlying it  psychologist conduct basic research – pure science that aims to increase scientific knowledge base – that builds psychology‟s knowledge base  psychologists may also conduct applied research – scientific study that aims to solve practical problems  psychology is also a helping profession devoted to such practical lessons as how to have a happy marriage, how to overcome anxiety or depression, & how to raise thriving kids  as a science, psychology at its best bases such interventions on evidence of effectiveness  counselling psychologist help people to cope with challenged and crises  clinical psychologist assess and treat mental, emotional, & behavior disorders  in contrast, psychiatrists are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders  psychology also influences modern culture Chapter 1: Thinking Critically With Psychological Sciences Did We Know It All Along? Hindsight Bias  hindsight bias – tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)  just asking people how and why they felt or acted the way they did can sometimes be misleading because common sense more easily describes what has happened than what will happen. Overconfidence  hindsight bias makes things seem more obvious so much that people become overconfident  point to remember: Hindsight bias and overconfidence often lead us to overestimate our intuition. But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion The Scientific Attitude  three main components of scientific attitude o curiosity – a passion to explore and understand without misleading or being misled. o Skepticism – believe something with a certainty, be open to new ideas, but do not believe everything. When ideas compete, skeptical testing can reveal which ones best match the facts. o Humility – an awareness of our own vulnerability to error and an openness to surprises and new perspectives. What matters is not my opinion or yours, but the truths nature reveals in response to our questioning. Critical Thinking  critical thinking – thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions  psychology‟s critical thinking is open to surprising findings  critical thinking has convincingly debunked popular presumptions The Scientific Method  theory – explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviours and events.  linking facts and bridging them to deeper principles, a theory offers a useful summary.  hypothesis – a testable prediction, often implied by a theory  good theory produces testable predictions  predictions give direction to research, they specify which results support or disconfirm the theory  operational definition – statement of the procedures(operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures  replication – repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances  theory will be useful if it 1) effectively organizes a range of self-reports and observations, and 2) implies clear predictions that anyone can use to check the theory or to derive practical applications Description The Case Study  case study – an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles  often suggest directions for further study, and they show us what can happen  individual cases may mislead us if the individual being studies is atypical  unrepresentative information can lead to mistaken judgements and false conclusions  point to remember: Individual cases can suggest fruitful ideas. What‟s true of all of us can be glimpsed in any one of us. But to discern the general truths that cover individual cases, we must answer questions with other research methods The Survey  survey – technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviours of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative of the group  asks people to report their behaviour or opinions  asking questions is tricky and the answers often depend on the ways questions are worded and respondents are chosen Wording Effects  subtle changes in the order or wording of questions can have major effects  critical thinkers will reflect on how the phrasing of a question might affect people‟s expressed opinions Random Sampling  population – all the cases in a group being studied form which samples may be drawn(Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country‟s whole population)  random sample – sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion  best basis for generalizing is from a representative sample of cases  before accepting survey findings, think critically: consider the sample. You cannot compensate for an unrepresentative sample by simply adding more people Naturalistic Observation  naturalistic observation – observing and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation  describes behaviour  descriptions can be revealing Correlation  correlation – measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other  correlational coefficient - statistical index of the relationship between two things (-1 to +1)  scatterplots – graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strengths of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).  positive correlation – two sets of scores tend to rise or fall together  negative correlation – two sets of scores relate inversely, one set is going up as the other goes down. Correlation and Causation  Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause-effect relationship, but does not prove causation.  knowing that two events are associated need not tell us anything about causation Illusory Correlations  illusory correlations – perception of a relationship where none exists  help explain many superstitious beliefs  When we notice random coincidences, we may forget that they are random and instead see them as correlated. Thus, we can easily deceive ourselves by seeing what is not there Experimentation  experiment – research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behaviour or mental process ( the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors  researchers can isolate cause and effect with an experiment  enable a researcher to focus on the possible effects of one or more factors by 1) manipulating the factors of interest and 2) holding constant (“controlling”) other factors Random Assignment  random assignment – assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups  if a behaviour changes when we vary an experimental factor, then we infer the factor is having an effect  double-blind procedure - an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies  placebo effect - experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behaviour caused by the administration on an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent  experimental group - the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable  control group – group that is not exposed to the treatment; contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment  random assignment roughly equalizes the two groups in age, attitudes, and every other characteristic Independent and Dependent Variable  independent variable – the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied  dependent variable - the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable  Both are given precise operational definitions, which specify the procedures that manipulate the independent variable or measure the dependent variable Describing Data Measures of Central Tendency  mode – the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution  mean – arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and dividing by the number of scores  median – the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above and half are below it.  neatly summarize data  consider what happens to the mean when a distribution is lopsided or skewed.  point to remember: always note which measure of central tendency is reported. If it is mean, consider whether a few atypical scores could be distorting it Measures of Variation  helps to know something about the of variation in the data  range – difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution  standard deviation – computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score  normal curve – (normal distribution) a symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall near the mean(68% fall within one standard deviation of it) and fewer and fewer near the extremes Making Inferences When is an Observed Difference Reliable?  Representative samples are better than biased samples. o best basis for generalizing is not from exceptional and memorable cases one finds at extremes but from a representative sample.  Less- variable observations are more reliable than those that are more variable o an average is more reliable when it comes from scores with low variability  More cases are better than fewer When is a Difference Significant?  when averages from two samples are each reliable measures of their respective populations, then their difference is likely to be reliable as well.  the sample averages are reliable, and the difference between them is relatively large, we say the difference has statistical significance.  statistical significance – statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance. Is it ethical to experiment on people?  Ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association (1992), by the British Psychological Society (1993), and by psychologists internationally (Pettifor, 2004), urge investigators to (1) obtain the informed consent of potential participants, (2) protect them from harm and discomfort, (3) treat information about individual participants confidentially, and (4) fully explain the research afterward.  ideal for a researcher to be sufficiently informative and considering that participants will leave feeling at least as good about themselves as when they came in Chapter 2: The Biology of the Mind  Biological psychologists: studying the links between biological activity and psychological events – they continue to expand our understanding of sleep and dreams, depression and schizophrenia, hunger and sex, stress, and disease. Neural Connection:  the building blocks of the nervous system are neurons  sensory neurons carry messages from the body‟s tissues and sensory organs inward to the brain and spinal cord for processing  motor neurons help to send instructions through the brain & spinal cord out to the body‟s tissues  Between the sensory & motor input info. is processed by interneurons the brain‟s internal communication system)  each cell consists of a cell body & its branching fibers, the bushy dendrite fibers receive info and conduct it toward the cell body which uses the cell’s axon to pass the message along to other neurons/muscles/glands -axons speak, dendrites listen  unlike short dendrite, axons are sometimes very long projecting several feet though the body  much as home electrical wire is insulated, so is a layer of fatty tissue called the myelin sheath which insulates the axons of some neurons and helps speed their impulses, if the myelin sheath degenerates multiple sclerosis results: communication to muscle slows, loss of muscle control  neural impulse speed travels at speeds of 2 miles/hr to 200+/hr (measure brain activity in millisecond) 1/1000 sec  neurons transmit messages when stimulated by signals from our senses or when triggered by chemical signals, a neuron fires an impulse called action potential a brief electrical charge that travels down its axon -the fluid interior of a resting axon has an excess of negative charged ions, outside axon membrane has more positive  this positive/negative inside state is called resting potential, the axon is selective as to what it lets in we call it selectively permeable  when a neuron fires the positively charged sodium ions flood through the membrane which depolarizes that section of the axon cases the axon‟s next channel to open and the next (like dominoes falling)  during the resting pause the neurons pumps the positively charged sodium ions back outside, then it can fire again  the neuron itself is a miniature decision making machine device, most of these signals are excitatory somewhat like pushing a neuron‟s accelerator, others are inhibitory more like pushing a break  if the excitatory signals minus inhibitory signals exceeds a minimum intensity or threshold (the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse) the combined signals trigger an action potential  the neuron‟s reaction is an all or nothing response How Neurons Communicate:  Sir Charles Sherrington noticed that neural impulses were taking a unexpected long time to travel a neural pathway, there must be a brief interruption in the transmission, the meeting point between neurons he called synapse  the axon terminal of one neuron is separated from the receiving neuron by a synaptic gap/synaptic cleft  when an action potential reaches the knoblike terminals at the axon‟s end it triggers the release of chemical messengers called neurotransmitters  the neurotransmitters unlocks tiny channels at the receiving site, and electrically charged atoms flow in, exciting or inhibiting the receiving neuron‟s readiness to fire, then in a process called reuptake, the sending neuron reabsorbs the excess neurotransmitters  Acetylcholine (ACh) is one of the best understood neurotransmitters, (role in learning and memory it is the messenger at very junction between the motor neuron and skeletal muscle)  When ACh is released to our muscle cell receptors the muscle contracts. If it is blocked as happens during anesthesia the muscles cannot contract and we are paralyzed  when flooded with opiate drugs such as heroin and morphine the brain may stop producing its natural opiates  endorphins: morphine within – natural opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control/pleasure  an agonist molecule may be similar enough to a neurotransmitter to mimic its effects or it may block the neurotransmitter‟s reuptake 1) Electrical impulses (action potentials) travel down a neuron‟s axons until reaching a tiny junction – synapse 2) When an action potential reaches an axon terminal, it stimulates the release of neurotransmitter molecules. These molecules cross the synaptic gap to bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron. This allows electrically charged atoms to enter the receiving neuron and excite or inhibit a new action potential. 3) The sending neuron normally reabsorbs excess neurotransmitter molecules, called reuptake Neurotransmitter Function Examples of malfunction Acetylcholine (ACh) Muscle action, memory, learning With Alzheimer‟s disease ACh producing neurons deteriorate Dopamine Movement, learning, attention, emotion Excessive: schizophrenia deprived: brain produces tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson‟s disease Serotonin Mood, hunger, sleep, arousal Undersupply: depression raise: Prozac, other antidepressants Norepinephrine Alertness, arousal Undersupply: depress mood GABA A major inhibitory neurotransmitter Undersupply: seizures, tremors, insomnia Glutamate Major excitatory neurotransmitter, Oversupply: migraines, seizures (which involved in memory is why people avoid it in food) The Nervous System:  Nervous system the body‟s speedy electrochemical communication network consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system  the brain and spinal cord from the central nervous system (CNS) which communicates with the body‟s sensory receptors/muscles/glands via peripheral nervous system (PNP)  PNP information travels through axons that are bundled into the electric cables – nerves Peripheral Nervous System:  Peripheral nervous system has 2 components – somatic/auto somatic  somatic: voluntary control of your skeletal muscles  Autonomic: controls our muscles/glands in our internal organs influencing such functions as glandular activity, heartbeat, digestion. It may be consciously overridden but usually operates on its own (autonomously)  in the autonomic it is divided into 2, sympathetic, parasympathetic  sympathetic nervous system arouses and expends energy, if something alarms you the system will accelerate heartbeat, raise your blood pressure, slow your digestion, raise your blood sugar, cool you with perspiration, making you alert and ready for action  parasympathetic system produces opposite effects, conserves energy, decreasing heartbeat, lowering blood pressure sympathetic (arousing) peripheral autonomic Nervous sustem parasympathetic central (brain and (calming) somatic spinal) Endocrine System:  the endocrine system‟s glands secrete another form of chemical messengers – hormones which travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues, they affect the brain and when it acts on the brain it influences our interest in sex, food, aggression  the parts of the system are: hypothalamus (brain region controlling the pituitary gland) pituitary gland (secretes many different hormones, some of which affect other glands) thyroid gland (affects metabolism, among other things) parathyroid (helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood) adrenal glands (inner part helps trigger the fight or flight response) pancreas (regulates the level of sugar in the blood) testis/ovary ( male/female sex hormones)  the most influential gland is pituitary gland -> a pea-sized structure in the brain, releases hormones that influence growth, and its secretions also influence the release of hormones by other endocrine glands Brain:  The electrical activity in the brain‟s billions of neurons in regular wave across its surface. An EGG – electroencephalogram is an amplified read out of such waves  PET (positron emission tomography) scan depicts brain activity by showing each brain area‟s consumption of its chemical fuel, the sugar glucose. After a person receives temporarily radioactive glucose, the PET scan detects where this “food for thought” goes by locating the radioactivity  MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) the brain scans; the head is put in a strong magnetic field, which aligns the spinning atoms of brain atoms. When the atoms return to their normal spin, they release signals that provide a detailed picture of the brain‟s soft tissues. MRI scans are also used to scan other parts of the body.  fMRI (functional MRI) can reveal the brain‟s functioning as well as its structure. The fMRI machine detects blood rushing to the back of the brain, which processes visual information Parts of the Brain:  brainstem the oldest and innermost region, begins where the spinal cord swells slightly after entering the skull, it‟s responsible for automatic survival functions o medulla: the base of the brainstem, controls heartbeat and breathing o pons: coordinate movement o reticular formation – inside the brainstem between the ears, a finger shaped network neurons that extends from the spinal cord right up to the thalamus – it‟s a nerve network which plays an important role in controlling arousal o Thalamus – the brain‟s sensory switchboard on the top of the brainstem, directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum and medulla, it receives information from all senses except smell and routes it to the higher brain regions dealing with senses.  The Cerebellum: extending from the rare of the brainstem (baseball sized), it enables one type of nonverbal learning and memory, it helps us judge time modulate our emotions, and discriminate sounds and textures, coordinates voluntary movement. It‟s known as “little brain” functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance; associated with emotions and drives  The Limbic System: neutral system sits between the brain‟s older parts and its cerebral hemispheres at the border (“limbus”) the two half of the brain. It has: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, and hippocampus o Amygdala: two lima bean sized neural clusters; linked to emotion: influence aggression & fear o Hypothalamus: just below the thalamus, helps to keep the body‟s internal environment steady state; directs several maintenance activities (eating), helps govern the endocrine sys. Via pituitary gland and linked to emotion & reward o Hippocampus: linked to memory o Pituitary: master endocrine gland  Corpus Callosum: axon fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres  Spinal Cord: pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain; controls simple reflexes  Glial cells (glia): cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons  Cerebellum: coordinates voluntary movement and balance & supports memories of such  Cerebral Cortex: ultimate control and information processing center covering the cerebral hemispheres the body‟s ultimate control and information processing center o frontal lobes: part of cerebral cortex lying behind the forehead, involved in speaking and muscle movement, in making plans, and judgement o Parietal lobe: part of cerebral cortex at the top of the head near the rear; receives sensory input for touch & body position o occipital lobe: part of cerebral cortex at the back of the head, includes areas that receive information from the visual fields o temporal lobes: part of cerebral cortex lying near the ears, includes auditory areas each receiving information primarily from the opposite ear  The structure of the cortex contains: frontal lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe  The functions of the cortex are: motor cortex, sensory cortex o Output: Motor Cortex: controls voluntary movements (rare of the frontal lobes), left hemisphere section controls the body‟s right side  Discovered by German physicians Gustav Fritsch & Eduard Hitzig when doing stimulations to a part of a dog‟s cortex  Stimulating parts of this region in the left or right hemisphere caused movements of specific body parts on the opposite side of the body  Body areas requiring precise control: fingers, mouth occupied the greatest amount of cortical space  The brain has no sensory receptors o Input: Sensory Cortex: processes body touch and movement sensations (front of parietal love), left hemisphere receives input from the body‟s right side  Penfield identified the cortical area that specialized in receiving information from skin senses and from the movement of body parts  Additional areas where the cortex receives input from senses other than touch (such as visual, you are receiving visual information in the visual cortex in your occipital lobes)  There is auditory cortex, visual cortex  Association areas: areas that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking and speaking.  Association areas are found in all 4 lobes, in frontal they enable judgement, planning and processing of new memories  E.g. people with damaged frontal lobes may have intact memories, high scores on intelligence tests, and baking skills but they won‟t be able to plan ahead to begin baking a cake  Frontal lobe damage can also alter personality removing a person‟s inhibitions  E.g. Phineas Gage suffered a rode up through his left cheek and out of the top of his skull  Phineas was able to sit, speak, his mental abilities and memories were intact but his personality was not  In the parietal lobes parts of which were large and unusually sha
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