Describe patterns & trends, doesn"t test relationships. Bar charts: visual representation for nominal/ordinal variables, use % to compare. Mode: most frequent value (no mode, unimodal = 1 mode, bimodal = 2 modes) limitation: have no mode or too many modes = lose statistical value meaning. Median: midpoint of distribution, only for ordinal and interval-ratio variables limitation: doesn"t account for extreme high or low response scores. Mean: average response score, only interval ratio variables limitation: highly affected by extreme scores. Normal curve: standard spread of data - unimodal (one mode), symmetrical (equal sides), equal measures of central tendency (mode, median and mean are all same) 2 variables, use cross tabulations, assess the nature of the relationship b/w variables. Explaining variables, propose hypothesis, examine conditional distributions. Test for relationship b/w 2 nominal/ordinal variables. Conditional distribution: display distribution of scores on the dv for each condition of iv.