ADM 2372 Study Guide - Final Guide: Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, Enterprise Portal, Document Management System

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Published on 22 Apr 2013
School
University of Ottawa
Department
Administration
Course
ADM 2372
ADM2372 Final review
Chapter 7: Databases and Data Warehouses
Organizational data and information
Data are raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event
Information is data converted into a meaningful and useful context
Information granularity refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed
or coarse and abstract)
The Value of transactional data and Analytical information
Transactional Data: Sales receipts, Airline tickets, Packing slips
Analytical information: Product statistics, Sales projections, Future growth, product trends
Are all store in the Database
Value of timely data and information
Real time Data: Is immediate
The Value of Quality Data and Information METRICS
Accuracy: Are the values correct? For example, is the name spelled correctly? IS the collar
amount properly recorded?
Completeness: Are there any values missing? For example, is the address complete including
street, city, province and postal code?
Consistency: Is aggregate or summary information in agreement with detailed information? For
example, do all total fields equal the true total of the individual fields?
Uniqueness: Is each transaction, entity, and event represented only once in the information?
Are there duplicate customers?
Timeliness: Is the information current with respect to the business requirements? IS information
update weekly, hourly, daily?
The value of Quality Data and Information
1. Missing information (no first name)
2. Incomplete date (No street)
3. Inaccurate data (Invalid e-mail)
4. Probable duplicate data (Similar names, same address, same phone number)
5. Potential wrong data (Are the phone and fax number the same or is it an error?)
6. Incomplete Data (Missing area codes)
The four primary sources of low quality information include:
1. Online customers intentionally enter inaccurate information to protect their privacy
2. Data or information from different systems have different entry standards and formats
3. Call center operators enter abbreviated or erroneous information by accident or to save time
4. Third party and external information contains inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and errors
Relational database fundamentals
Information is everywhere in an organization
Information is store in databases
o Database: Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events
(Transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
Databases include:
o Hierarchical Database model: Information is organized into a tree-like structure (using
parent/child relationships) in such a way that it cannot have too many relationships
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o Relational database model: Stores information in the form of logically related two-
dimensional tables
Entity, Entity classes, and Attributes
Entity: A person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored
o The rows in each table contain the entities
o In figure 7.5 CUSTOMER includes Dave’s Sub Shop and Pizza Palace entities
Entity class (Table): A collection of similar entities
o In figure 7.5 CUSTOMER, ORDER, ORDER LINES, DISTRIBUTOR, and PRODUCT are entity
classes
Attributes (Fields, columns): Characteristics or properties of an entity class
o The colums in each table contain the attributes
o In figure 7.5 attribute for CUSTOMER include
Customer ID
Customer name
Contact name
Phone number
Keys and Relationships
Primary keys and foreign keys identify the various entity classes (tables) in the database
o Primary key: A fields (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
o Foreign Key: A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table
and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
Increased flexibility
A well designed database should:
o Handle changes quickly and easily
o Provide users with different views
o Have only one physical view
Physical view: Deals with the physical storage of information on storage device
o Have multiple logical views
Logical view: Focuses on how users logically access information
Increased Scalability and Performance
A database must scale to meet increased demand while maintaining acceptable performance
levels
o Scalability: refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands. Must keep
performance exquisite no matter how many records you have
o Performance: Measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
Reduced redundancy
Databases reduce information redundancy
o Redundancy: The duplication of information or storing the same information in multiple
places
o Often 2 databases are in use in case one fails
Inconsistency is one of the primary problems with redundant information
Database Management systems:
DBMS: Software through which users and application programs interact with a database
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Data-driven websites
Data driven websites: is an interactive web site kept updated and relevant to the needs of its
customers
Most database providers made their databases XML friendly, and eventually XML became an
inherent part of the database
Advantage: Anybody on any application can read from the database
A history of Data Warehousing
A central repository where the whole corporation’s data is in one place
Data warehouses extend the transformation of data into information
In the 90s executive became less concerned about the day-to-day business operation and more
concerned about overall business functions
The data warehouse provided the ability to support decision making without disrupting the day-
to-day operations
Advantage: Help us look beyond data as being raw data. Helps us extend data into information
Data warehouse fundamentals:
Data warehouse: A logical collection of information gathered from many different operation
databases, supports business analysis activities and decision making tasks
The primary purpose of data warehouses is to aggregate information throughout an
organisation into a single repository for decision-making purposes
Data Mart: Contains a subset of data warehouse information
Contributed-to by all departments and put into data warehouse
Easy way to guide decision making
Multidimensional Analysis
Databases contain information in a series of two-dimensional tables
In a data warehouse and data mart, information is multidimensional; it contains layers of
columns and rows
o Dimension: A particular attribute of information
Cube: A common term for the representation of multidimensional information
o Easy to decide on whatever piece of information you’re looking for
o Can go from3, to 4, to 6 dimensions but they must be VERY defined
Information Cleansing or Scrubbing
An organisation must maintain high-quality data in the date-warehouse
Information cleansing or scrubbing: A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent,
incorrect, or incomplete information
Business intelligence
Business intelligence: Information that people use to support their decision-making efforts
Often used with data warehousing
Information that managers and executives use In the decision making process
Business intelligence helps to get to the root of the problem and take action in a short period of
time
Latency: The time between an event and action being taken
The more time taken to take action, the less valuable the company will be
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Document Summary

Data are raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event. Information is data converted into a meaningful and useful context. Information granularity refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract) The value of transactional data and analytical information. Transactional data: sales receipts, airline tickets, packing slips. Analytical information: product statistics, sales projections, future growth, product trends. The value of quality data and information metrics. The value of quality data and information: missing information (no first name, probable duplicate data (similar names, same address, same phone number, potential wrong data (are the phone and fax number the same or is it an error?) Information is store in databases: database: maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses) Entity: a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored: the rows in each table contain the entities.

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