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ADM 3321 Study Guide - Final Guide: Silent Generation, Ethnic Media, Consumer Confidence

Course Code
ADM 3321
Michael Mulvey
Study Guide

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Consumer Behavior Exam
Chapters: 6,7,11,12,13
Chapter 6: Personality, Lifestyles, and Values
Chapter 6
Personality person’s unique psychological makeup and how it influences the way they
respond to the environment
- Consumer behavior is often the result of unconscious motives which can be
determined through psychological techniques
Freudian Theory
ID component of the self entirely oriented toward immediate gratification
- It is the party animal of the mind
- Operates according to pleasure principlebehavior is guided by the primary
desire to maximize pleasure and avoid pain
- ID is selfish and logical
Superego counterweight to the I; this is the person’s conscience
- It internalizes society’s rules and works to prevent the Id from seeking selfish
- Operates according to moral principles
Ego system in between Id and superego a referee in the fight between temptation and
- his work highlights the importance of unconscious motives underlying purchases
- put emphasis on sexual aspects of personality
Motivational Research
- first attempt to apply Freudian ideas to understand the deeper meanings of
products and ads
- relies on in depth interviews with individual consumers
Cost efficiency: Motivational research tends to be less expensive than large
quantitative surveys because interviewing and data-processing costs are relatively
Providing insights: The knowledge derived from motivational research can
possibly help to develop marketing communication that appeal to deep-seated
needs and thus provide a more powerful hook to relate a product to consumers.
Intuitive Sense:
Neo-Freudian Theory
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- coworkers/students that were influenced by Freud
- Karen Horney she proposed that people can be moving towards other
(compliant), away from others (detached), or against others (aggressive)
o These three types of people prefer different types of products
- Carl Lung developed analytic psychology which emphasizes both individual’s
development as a creative person (their future) and individual and racial history
(their past) in formation of personality
o Emphasis on collective unconsciousness storehouse of memories
inherited from our ancestral past
o Archetypes shared memories, universal ideas and behavior patterns
o Involves themes such as birth, death, or the devil, that appears frequently
in myths, stories, and dreams
Trait Theories
- Trait specific traits or identifiable characteristics that define a person
- Consumption differences between allocentrics (having group orientation) vs.
idiocentrics (individualist orientation)
o i.e. idiocentrics live travelling more than allocentrics
o i.e. allocentrics like spending time in kitchen more than idiocentrics
- problems with trait theories
o Validity and reliability
o Personality tests are only for specific groups
o Test Procedures: conditions, changes in instruments
o Results cannot be used to make predictions
- Personality traits interact with situational factors to predict how consumers will
o i.e. someone high in public self consciousness more likely to buy products
that will help present a positive view of themselves to others
o need for uniqueness
o need for cognition like thinking about things and product attributes
Brand Personality set of traits people give to a product as if it were a person
- brand equity extent to which consumers hold a strong favorable association with
brand and extent to which they are willing to pay more for this brand
- use of brand personality
o Mainly a strategic tool for the creative team
o Used as a mirror to see if the ads are congruent with the intended brand
o The goal is to describe perceptual reality from consumer’s perspective
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o Used for product positioning
- Brand personality and animism
o Level 1: Associating the product with the soul of a human being
o Level 2: Objects are anthropomorphized; given human characteristics
(such as personality traits)
Lifestyles and Psychographics
- who are we, what we do
- life style: a set of shared values or tastes exhibited by a group of consumers,
reflected in consumption patterns
o Outward expression of needs and values
o What consumers buy, do not buy, do not do, etc.
o Tendency to behave in the marketplace and to respond to them in a
predictable manner
o Can change over time
o Person, product, setting look at diagram in slides
- lifestyle marketing perspective recognizes that people sort themselves into groups
on the basis of the things they like to do, how they like to spend their leisure
time, and how they chose to spend their disposable income
o these choices can be used for market segmentation strategy
- use of lifestyle concept in marketing
o Description of target consumer or potential user
o Who currently buys product and who is likely to buy
o Demographic data not enough
o Values, attitudes, opinions, personalities
A human portrait of the consumer
- product complementarity occurs when symbolic meanings of different products
are related to each other
o sets of products are term consumption constellations
- Activities
o Work, hobbies, social events, vacation, sports
- Interests
o Community, recreation, fashion, food, media
- Opinions
o Politics, business, economics, products, social issues
- Psychographics can help marketers fine tune their offerings to meet the needs of
different segments
Use of Psychographics segmentation
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