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Final notes - ADM2336 - Bonaccio

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Rami Alasadi

ADM 2336 Organizational behaviour Silvia Bonaccio Day 1 (05/09/2012)  Syllabus  Intro to OB (chap 1)  Chapter 2  SASS workshops, test taking strategies  Paper copy of short bio due next class  [email protected]  Office hours: Wednesday, 2:30-3:30  Check VC regularly  o Contains 7 edition of textbook for free  4 cases worth 20%  Midterms (2) 40%  Final (cumulative) 40%  No PP slides  Grade Revisions o Within one week o Detailed written explanation to Prof. Bonaccio o Feeback sessions after each exam  Find a team of 4-5, designated leader, hand in list Course Objectives:  Influence of 3 factors  Individual (personality, place in groups) [MT #1]  Interpersonal (teamwork, relationships, leadership) [MT#2]  Organizational (structure, hierarchy)  Levels of Analysis o Individuals, Groups, Orgs What is OB? What are Orgs: (Walmart, YMCA, Bands, Sports teams, Gov‟t) Different missions  Def: Social inventions to accomplish common goals through group effort.  Formal and informal groups and how they work OB definition: The attitudes and behaviours of indivs and groups within Orgs. Goals of OB: OB is concerned with… 1. Predicting people‟s behaviour in the context of work 2. Explanations about that behaviour 3. Managing the behaviour What is job Performance?  Happy, well treated, respected employees  Job performance is o Behaviour (what people actually do) o Under employees‟ control (they can choose) o Relevant organizational goals  Task Performance: Proficiency with which employees perform activities that are formally recognized to be part of their jobs. (What is in the job description and are you doing it? Are you doing it well?)  Organization Citizenship Behaviours (OCB): o Altruism (Helping others, bringing pastries) o Courtesy (Respecting the work environment, respectful of others) o Diligence (Punctual, working smart) o Sportsmanship (Initiative, avoiding grievances, positive representation) o Civic Virtue (taking part in political life, optional meetings)  Counterproductive Work Behaviours (CWB’s) o Against the Org  Theft, embezzlement, Tardiness, poor attention o Against its members  Harassment, threats, spreading rumors Chapter 2: Personality & Learning What is Personality?  A relatively stable set of psychological characteristics (relatively stable throughout life)  Long lasting traits that influence how indivs interact in their environment What is NOT part of personality?  Moods and emotions (Transient) What determines behaviour?  Personality?: Pre disposition to behave in a certain way  The environment?: Really depends on the situation  Both?: A mix of both personality and environment. Interactionist perspective, red light example Big 5 factors of Personality!:  Conscientiousness (C): Degree to which a person is Hard working, Persistent, Responsible, Careful, Organized (Lisa Simpson)  Agreeableness (A): Sympathetic, Empathetic, Trusting of others, Good words for most, Altruistic, Enjoy confrontation, Arguments (Dr. House, not agreeable)  Neuroticism/Emotional Stability (N): Anxious, Self-conscious, Feel vulnerable, Easily stressed, Sad, Fearful (Low end)  Openness to Experience (O): Imaginative, Creative, Adventurous, Open to new Ideas, Deep Thinking (Zooey Deschanel, New Girl)  Extraversion (E): Enjoy Company, Gregarious, Active, Easily make Friends, Dominant in Groups, Outgoing (Will Ferrell, Ricky Bobby)  CANOE: Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, Extraversion Do the Big 5 Matter?  Task performance o Conscientiousness (Go-getter, on time) o Extraversion (Sales personnel) o Agreeableness (Service Jobs, Customer centers)  OCB: o Conscientiousness (More likely)  CWB o Conscientiousness (least likely)  Training proficiency: o Openness to experience (Open to new info) o Extraversion (Open to meeting new people) o Conscientiousness Other traits:  Locus of Control o Belief about what causes experiences in life (Fig. in Chap 2)  Self-Monitoring o How people observe and regulate their appearance and behaviour in social settings, [Ex; Adapt to the workplace, Politicians, Customer service reps] (Walking though campus example/speed up, slow down)  Self-Esteem o Degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation  General Self-Efficacy o Belief in one‟s ability to perform successfully, See the Book for Social Cognitive Theory  Positive and Negative Affect o Propensity to view the world in a positive or negative light What is learning?  A relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs due to practice or experience Employees learn:  Practical Skills: Training on new equipment, sign language  Intrapersonal Skills: Problem solving, Crit Thinking  Interpersonal Skills: Verbal communication, teamwork, conflict resolution, diversity workshops  Cultural Awareness: Learning about the organization culture, social norms, goals, mission or the Org, expectations Operant learning Behaviour to Consequences  The consequences will wither increase the probability of behaviour OR decrease the probability of behaviour Lecture 2 Learning continued: Increasing the probability of behaviour  Reinforcement: The process by which stimuli strengthen behaviours  2 types: o Positive reinforcement o Negative reinforcement Ex: If I sit I get a cookie, I‟ll keep sitting Positive reinforcement: Adding a stimulus to increase the probability of behaviour  The stimulus must be pleasant Negative reinforcement: Removing a stimulus to increase the probability of good behaviour  The stimulus must be unpleasant (ex: Nagging) Decrease the probability of a certain behaviour Extinction: Gradual dissipation of a behaviour after reinforcement stops (ex: Ignoring the class clown) Punishment: Addition of an unpleasant stimulus to decrease the probability of a certain behaviour Summary: Positive and negative reinforcement used to increase the likelihood of specific behaviours Punishment and extinction to reduce the likelihood of specific behaviours Chapter 3: Perception, Attribution, and Judgement of Others Ways in which we make sense about the changes in our environment What is Perception?: Interpreting the message of our sense to provide order and meaning to the environment Components: Perceiver  Experiences  Motivational, Emotional, Physiological state Target  Ambiguity  Situation  Context helps interpretation Biases in perception Primacy and recency (First and last impressions) Reliance on central Traits Implicit personality theories (Belief that traits coincide when it‟s not the case) Projection (Managers projecting onto employees) Stereotyping Where does Perception Matter?  Recruitment and selection o Practices = Organizational “signals”  Workforce Diversity o Stereotypes are detrimental o Age, race, sexuality, etc  Selection Interview o Stereotype of Ideal position o Primacy effect o Negative information is weighted more o Contrast effect  Performance Appraisal o Recency effect, major problem (instead of looking at the whole term) o Rater errors: Leniency, harshness, and central tendency (1- all, 1 prof to all students) (A‟s, F‟s, B‟s) o Similar to me error  Prefer people with whom you feel a connexion o Halo/Horns (1 to 1) (missing some information on a few parts of the appraisal – generalisation, fill in blanks)  Positive or negative depending on the info we do have Attributions  How motives are assigned to explain people‟s Behaviour  2 Classes of attribution o Dispositional – blame the person o Situational – Blame the situation (Ex: bus was late)  Cues Used to make attributions o Consistency  Does the person engage in the behaviour consistently in this situation? o Consensus  Do most people engage in the behaviour or is it unique to this person?  Distinctiveness o Does this person engage in the behaviour in many situation, or is it distinct to one situation? Example:  What attribution do you make? o Smith always takes long work breaks, his peers do not, he also took long breaks at his old job  Highly consistent (always does this)  Distinctive (sticks out)  Low distinctiveness Chapter 4: Values, Attitudes, and work behaviour  Define Values and discuss the implications of cross cultural variation in values for OB  Define Attitudes and explain how people develop and change attitudes  Explain the concept of job satisfaction and discuss some of the key contributors, including discrepancy, fairness, disposition, mood, etc  Values: A broad tendency to rpefer certain states of affairs over others o Values have to do with what we consider good and bad o Values and motivational and very general o People tend to hold values structures such factors ads achievement power, autonomy conformity, tradition and ocial welfare  Depending on the age group to which you belong you may have different values  Differences in Values: General differences in work values or the way values are expressed is important because a good “fit” between a person‟s values and those of the organization leads to more positive work attitudes and behaviours  Cultural value differences: Basic differences in work related values across cultures  A lack in recognizing cross cultural values and differences can have serious consequences on business negotiations (Punctuality)  Hofstede’s study: Discovered 5 dimensions along which work related values differ across cultures o Power distance o Uncertainty avoidance o Masculinity/femininity o Individualism/collectivity o Long term orientation  OB theories: o Research practices in NA may not be acceptable overseas o A good fit between company practices and the host cultural are very important o Orgs need to tailor management practices to the home culture‟s concern‟s  Glocal: Think globally but act locally  Globalization: Expansion, free market, same product anywhere in the world  Appreciating global customers: o Appreciation of cross cultural values is essential in understanding the needs and wants of global customers o Appreciating the values of global customers is also important when they enter your own culture  Developing global employees o Successfully translating mgmt. practices to other cultures, importing practices, and appreciating global customers is not accidental o Companies need to train their employees to have an appreciation of differences in cultural values and the implications of their differences for behaviour in organizations  Attitudes: o An attitude is fairly stable tendency to respond to consistency to some specific object, situation, person, or category or people o Attitudes involve evaluations directed towards specific targets] o They are much more specific than values  Three components of Attitudes; o Cognition, affect and behaviour  Cognitions – Beliefs and values o Supervisor is unfair o Having a fair supervisor is important to me  Affect – Feeling and emotions o I don‟t like my supervisor  Behviour – Intended behaviour o BLANK The communicator, the message, the situations Changing attitudes:  Concentrate on gradually changing the attitude over a period of time  Identify the beliefs and values of the attitude holder to provide the attitude holder  Make the setting as pleasant and enjoyable as possible  Identify reasons that changing the attitude is an advantage to the attitude holds  Attitudes are a function of what we think and feel  Organizations often attempt to change employee attitudes  Most attempts to change attitudes are initiated by a communicator who tries to persuade by some form to modify Job satisfaction:  A collection of attitudes that workers have about their jobs  2 aspects of satisfaction: Facet satisfaction refers to the tendency of an employees to be more or less satisfied with various facets of the job o The work itself o Compensation o Career opportunities o Recognitions o Benefits  To measure job satisfaction we use the job descriptive index (JDI) o It I is designed around the 5 facets of job satisfaction o Uses yes or no questions  The Minnesota satisfaction questionnaire (MSQ) is also used to evaluate job satisfaction o On a scale of very satisfied to very dissatisfied  Discrepancy: o A theory that job satisfaction that stems from the discrepancy between the job outcomes you want and the outcome that are perceived to be obtained o Strong evidence that satisfaction with one‟s pay is high when there is a small gap between the pay received and the perception of how much pay should be received  Fairness: Fairness affects both what people want from their jobs and how they react to the discrepancies in organizational life  3 basic types of fairness: o Distributive fairness o Procedural farness: how it is done, “do I as a manager use the same practices with different people?” (No preferences) o Interactional fairness: About treatment, how the first 2 are communicated to employees  Disposition: o Could your personality contribute to the  Contributors to job satisfaction: o Mentally challenging work o Adequate compensation o Career opportunities o Friendly/helpful colleagues  Consequences of Job Satisfaction: o Absence from work: Caused by low job satisfaction o Turnover: high satisfaction = low turnover o Performance: good performance = high satisfaction o Org citizenship behaviour: Belong to the Org, take extra step o Customer satisfaction and profit:  Organizational commitment: o Is an attitude the reflects the strength of the linkage between you and the Org o This linkage has implications for whether someone tends to remain in an Org o There are 3 types of Org commitment:  Affective commitment:  Stay with an Org simply because they want to stay  Commitment based on a person‟s identifications and involvement with and Org  Continuous commitment:  Commitment based on the costs of leaving the Org  People stay because they have to  Normative commitment:  Commitment based on a person‟s ideology or feeling or obligation  Stay with the Org because they think they should do so… Chapter 5: Theories of Work Motivation  Why is motivation necessary?  Because motivation helps work performance  Performance = Abilities + Motivation  Must provide training to increase abilities  But training costs money, therefore it is best to increase motivation  What is motivation?  The extent to which persistent efforts lead toward a directed goal  The desire to do something  The want to work  It is one of the most studied topics in OB  Motivation is especially important in:  Global competition  Rapid changes  Flexibility  Attention to customers  Basic motivational characteristics  Effort  Persistence  Direction (work smarter, not harder)  Goals (what we‟re trying to achieve)  Intrinsic motivation:  Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between you and the task you are performing, usually self-applied (desire to do well)  Intrinsically motivated people do better  Extrinsic Motivation:  Motivation that stems from the work environment to the task and is usually applied by others (bonus, raise, extra time off)  Self-motivation Theory:  A theory that considers whether peoples motivation is autonomous or not  Autonomous motivation is self-motivation or intrinsic motivation  Controlled motivation is given by others (bosses  Extrinsic factors can lead to autonomous motivation  Autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance, especially on complex tasks  Performance:  Performance refers to the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of the Org  While motivation contributes to performance, the relationship is not one-to-one because a number of other factors also influence performance.  Factors to contribute to individual job performance:  Effort + motivation can equal poor performance  Because the employee needs abilities, skills, task understanding, emotional intelligence, attitudes, and chance.  Motivation theories:  Motivation theories that specify the kinds of needs people have and conditions under which they will be motivated to satisfy these needs in a way that contributes to performance  3 prominent theories  Maslows hierarchy of needs  Alderfer’s ERG theory  McClelland’s theory of needs  Similarities between Maslow and Alderfer:  5 levels for Maslow (Psychological, safety, belongingness, self- esteem, self-actualisation)  Must satisfy the lower needs before the higher needs  3 levels for Alderfer (existence, relatedness, growth)  McClelland’s theory of needs:  A non-hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of motivation  Needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics  Concerned with the specific behavioural consequences of three needs: Achievement, Affiliation, and Power  Some people seek challenging jobs to achieve more and more  Affiliation: a job that lets one communicate with many others  Power: The influence upon others  Research supports fot Need theories:  Frustration and relatedness needs increase the strength of existence needs  The simplicity of the ERG captures Human structure better than maslow‟s rigid theory  Work on McClellands theory is generally supportive of the idea that particular needs are motivational when the work setting permits the satisfaction of these needs  Managerial implications of Need theories  Appreciate diversity of workers from different cultures and offer incentives and goals that correspond to them  Appreciate all the needs and not just the highers needs as the base needs must be satisfied first  Appreciate the motivational potential of intrinsic motivators and the existence of higher order needs  Process theories of Work motivation  Motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation occurs  Three important process theories:  Expectancy theory  Equity theory  Goal setting theory  Goal setting theory:  A process that states that goals are motivational when they are specific, challenging, and when Org members are committed to them and feedback about progress toward goal attainment is provided  SMART goals: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time- Framed.  Mechanisms of goal setting:  Goals:  Specific, challenging commitment, feedback  Mechanisms:  Direction  Effort  Persistence  Task strategies rd  Midterm exam (TBH on Oct. 3 )  What is OB the study of?  Actions and attitudes of people In the organization  The Big Five „CANOE‟  3 goals of OB: Predict, explain, and manage  Predict actions  Explain behaviours  Manage employees Lecture 5  Equity theory o Motivation stems from a comparison of the inputs in a job and the outcomes one receives in comparison with the incomes and outputs of another person or group o In what sense is the equity theory a theory of motivation? o Indivs are motivates to maintain  Example o Terry is a middle manager\  5 years‟ experience  MBA degree  Good performance  75.000 salary o Terry learns tha Maxine maxes the same salary as he but she has:  1 year experience  A  Average performance o What will terry conclude when he compares his outcome/input ratio to Maxine‟s o What might he do?  In his view he is underpaid amd should be experiencing inequity  He might resolve this psychologically or behaviourally  What might Maxine be experiencing if she knew of Terry‟s salary  What might she do?  Expectancy theory (Important) Chart in the book o Instrumentality: The perception by an individund to first-level outcomes (performance) are associated with 2 level outcomes (rewards) o Valence: The preferences for outcomes as seen by an individual o Expectancy: The individual‟s belief regarding the likelihood or subjective probability Chapter 6: Motivation  Job design as a motivator o Identify the characteristics that make the job interesting o An attempt to capitalize on intrinsic motivation  Job rotation: o Increase the scope of an individual‟s job by rotation o Rotated to different tasks in the Org o Can involve functional work in different departments o Challenging, assignments, new skills prepare employees for future roles o Pros: Acquire more skills, Motivates employees, o Cons: No specialization, disruptive to new department  Job characteristics model (Important for 2 midterm) o Skill variety o Task identity o Task significance o Autonomy o Feedback  Job enrichment: o The design of jobs to enhance intrinsic motivation, quality of working life, and job involvement o Job enrichment involves increasing the motivational potential of jobs via the arrangement of their core job characteristics  Job enrichment procedures o Combining tasks o Establishing external client relationships o And internal client relationships o Reducing supervision or reliance on others o Forming work teams o More direct feedback  Challenges with job enrichment o Poor diagnosis o Lack of skill or desire o Demand for rewards o Union resistance o Supervisory resistance  MBO process o The MBO process involves manager-employess interactions:  Meets regularly with individual workers to review progress and set goals/personal development objectives/job performance  An appraisal meeting is set to evaluate the extent to which the agreed objectives have been achieved  The MBO cycle is repeated  Research Evidence  A number of factors are associated with the failure of MBO programs o Need regular meetings and therefore commitment o Must measure quantitative and categorical goals o Excessive short term orientation o Performance review because just an exercise for punishing employees for failure to achieve set objectives Chapter 7: Groups and teamwork  Definition: A group consists of 2 or more people interacting interdependently to achieve a common goal o Formal groups: Established by orgs to facilitate the achievement or organizational goals o Informal groups: Groups that emerge naturally in response to a common interest among organizational members  Stages of group development o Forming: Formation of group  Storming: Emergence of leaders and followers  Norming: Become functional and start operating o Performing:  Adjourning: Disbanding  Group structures and its Consequences o Group structure refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of the group, the way it‟s “put together” o Most important variables are size and diversity  Size: 3-20 members  Bigger groups lead to more inputs, ideas, and skills  Diversity: The better they get along, the more effective they will be o Other characteristics and norms, roles, status and cohesiveness  Norms: The rules and laws the govern society‟s behaviour  Roles: a set of behaviours expected from someone (job description  Status:  Cohesiveness: How attracted are the group members to each other – smaller groups more cohesive, more exclusive, closely located,  Social Loafing o The tendency to withhold physical or intellectual effort when performing a group task o Social loafing is a motivation problem  Counteracting Social Loafing o Make the group smaller o Make indiv performance more visible o Make sure that the work is interesting o Increase performance feedback o Reward group performance  What is a team? o “Team” is used to describe “groups” in Org. settings o Major building block of organizations and are now very common in NA o Research has shown improvements in org performance in terms of both efficiency and quality as a result of team-based work arrangements  Designing effective work teams o According to J. Richard Hackman, a work group is effective when  It‟s physical or intellectual output is acceptable to management and to other parts of the Org. that need this output  Group members are satisfied by the group  The experience enables members to work together again o Group effectiveness occurs when  High effort is directed towards the group‟s task  When great knowledge and skill are directed toward the task  When sensible strategies are adopted by the group to accomplish the goals o One way to design groups to be more effective is to make them self- managed work team  SMWTs o Ability to complete complex tasks with little supervision o Regulate much of their members behaviour o Critical success factors include  Challenging and enriched tasks  The composition of the group (Stability, size, expertise, diversity)  Various support mechanisms (training, Reward, & management)  Cross-Functional teams o Bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent, design or
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