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ADM 2336 chapter summaries 5-8

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Rami Alasadi

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Chapter 5: Theories of work motivation Why motivation is necessary:  Helps work performance  Performance = abilities + motivation  Training increases abilities  Training in costly What motivation IS:  Persistent effort leading towards a goal  The desire or want to work  Important in: o Global competition o Rapid changes o Flexibility o Customer dedication Motivational characteristics:  Effort  Persistence  Direction (work smarter)  Clear goals Intrinsic motivation:  Motivation from within  Intrinsic motivation works better Extrinsic motivation:  Motivation from another (Boss, parent, bonuses, raises) Self-motivation theory:  Considers if motivation is autonomous or not  Autonomous motivation vs controlled motivation  Autonomous motivation facilitates effective performance Performance:  Extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the Orgs goal/objectives  Performance contributes to motivation but there are also other factors Factors contributing to performance:  Abilities, skills, task understanding, emotional intelligence, attitudes, and chance Motivation theories:  Specify the kinds on needs people have as well as the conditions under which they will be motivated Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Alderfers ERG theory McClellands theory of needs Similarities between Maslow and Alderfer:  5 levels in Maslow’s (Psych, safety, belonging, self-esteem, self-actualisation)  3 levels in Alderfer’s (Existence, Relatedness, Growth) McClelland’s theory of needs:  Non-hierarchical theory, outlines how certain needs result in patterns of motivation  Needs reflect stable personality characteristics  Concerned with the consequences of 3 needs o Achievement o Affiliation o Power  Some people see challenging for more achievement  Affiliation is a job that’s encourage communication with others  Power is the influence over others Research supports need theories  ERG captures human structure better than Maslow’s hierarchy  McClellands theory states that, particular needs are motivational when the work setting permits their satisfaction Managerial implications:  Appreciate worker diversity and offer corresponding goals  Appreciate ALL the needs  Appreciate the potential of intrinsic motivation and higher order needs Process theories of work motivation:  Theories specifying the details of how motivation works o Equity theory o Expectancy theory o Goal setting theory Goal setting theory:  States the goals are motivation when they are specific, challenging and require commitment  SMART: Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, Time-framed  Mechanisms of goal setting: o Direction o Effort o Persistence o Task strategies Equity theory:  Motivation stems from the comparison between the inputs and outputs, given and received, from a job compared to those of others  Motivation through example o Terry vs Maxine  Terry is getting 70,000 with 5 years’ experience  Maxine is getting 70,000 with 1 year of experience and lesser performance o What might Terry dp?  View he is underpaid  Might resolve is psychologically or behaviorally  Would Maxine do the same thing? Expectancy theory: nd  Instrumentality: The perception of how 1rst level outcomes are related to 2 level outcomes  Valence: The preferences for outcomes as seen by individuals  Expectancy: The indivs. Beliefs regarding likelihood or subjective probability Chapter 6: Motivation Job design as a motivator  Identify the interesting job characteristics  In order to capitalize on intrinsic motivation Job Rotation  Increase the scope of an individual’s job  Rotated through different  Work in different departments  Prepare employees for future roles  Pros: More skills, increased motivation  Cons: Disruptive, non-specialized Job Characteristics model 1. Skill variety 2. Task identity 3. Task significance 4. Autonomy 5. Feedback Job enrichment:  Jobs design to enhance self-motivation, quality of working life, and involvement  Also involves increase motivational potential by the arrangement of their job characteristics Job enrichment procedures: 1. Combining tasks 2. Establish external/internal client relationships 3. Reduce supervision and reliance 4. Forming work teams 5. More direct feedback Challenges:  Poor diagnosis  Lack of skill/desire  Demand for rewards  Union resistance  Supervisory resistance MBO Process:  Involves Manager-Employee interactions: o Meet regularly to review performance and set personal goals/development objectives o Appraisal meeting set to evaluate o Repeated often Factors associated with failure of MBO  Need for REGULAR meeting/commitment  Measurement of quantitative/categorical goals  Excessive short –term orientation  Performance review becomes an punishment exercise Chapter 7: Groups and teamwork Definition: Groups consist of 2 or more people interacting interdependently the attain a common goal  Formal groups: Established by organizations to aid in the achievement of Org. goals  Informal groups: Groups that emerge naturally in response to a common interest Stages of group development: 1. Forming: Formation 2. Storming: Determining leader & followers 3. Norming: Becoming functional & beginning operation 4. Performing: 5. Adjourning: Disbanding Group structures & Consequences:  Refers to the characteristics of the social organization of the group, the way it’s “put together”  Important variable: o 3-20 members  Bigger groups = more input and skills 
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