The way we make sense and interpreted the information given to our senses such as
touch, smell, taste, sight, etc. We might be given the best pay in the firm but think
our pay is low because we don’t know our surrounding or even know our
surrounding but perceive it as low compared to the CEO.
Our experience, emotion and needs affect our perception. Our past experience gives
us expectation on situations or people. Take for example a survey from fortune 500,
women, non Caucasian men and women felt that race and gender caused barrier in
promotion way more than Caucasian men. This is probably because they’ve
experienced such barrier more than Caucasian men.
We like to interpret things and give it some meaning. When the target is ambiguous
(more than just one interpretation), it is more susceptible to interpretation and
addition. Just because we have more information about one target, doesn’t mean we
will know about it more accurately. Similarly, if we assign minority workers to a
prejudice manager thinking he will know more about them, doesn’t mean that he
will change his views on them.
The context of the situation can change the perception of the target. When a boss
screams at an employee before a promotion, the employee might perceive it
differently than if he screamed at him on a normal day.
Social Identify Theory
A theory that says that we form perception of ourselves based on our characteristics
(Our personal unique characteristics such as interests, abilities, etc) and social
category such as race, physical traits, sports team, etc.
Primary and Recency Effects
Primary effect is the first impression that seems to last very long in a relationship.
What you portray yourself in the first time with a boss will tell him that you are like
that for a very long time. On the other hand the recency effect states that some
people value the final impression the most. For example, a final good contract might
excuse a whole year’s bad sales. Reliance on Central Traits
Some people rely on central traits when they first encounter people. They look for
specific attributes or characteristics in the person they are interacting with in which
he has specific interest. It could be physical interest, intellectual interest, etc. There
has been evidence that more attractive people and taller people do better in job
performance and get more promotions.
Implicit personality Theory
When we tend to associate one personality trait with another such as thinking that a
hard worker is supposed to be honest as well or thinking that a smart person would
be unfriendly or arrogant.
Thinking that others have the same perception as you. People sometimes think that
others think like them with the same thoughts or feelings. An honest manager might
think that his employees are honest too and find out that stocks are missing. This
can work as a self-defense too such as stealing because they think that others are
Some people automatically assumed a set of characteristics of other people because
of their social identity such as race, age, gender, etc.
They follow a step which is distinguishing their category (blacks), giving
characteristics for that category (black dude is dumb) and then thinking everyone
that falls into that category has those characteristics (all black dudes are dumb).
What makes a person behave in such way?
He has a specific unique characteristic and his behavior is driven by that and
therefore a person’s behavior reflects the true personality of that person.
It is external factors or cues that drives the behavior of a person such as mood, bad
To determined whether the behavior is from a situational attribution or
dispositional attribution we look at 3 types of cues. Consistency Cues
Consistency cues looks at a person’s true motives therefore it is a dispositional
attribution. Consistency is how often and consistent does the person repeat his
behavior. If a professor often gives opened welcomed and friendly office hours he
will be seen has a nice fellow as opposed to if the behavior is inconsistent then it will
be a situational attribute.
This is how a person’s behavior is unique compared to others. Is this behavior in the
norm, is it normal and is it repeated by other people usually? This tells the
dispositional attribute of a person. Take for example an interview about big
companies. A person giving good comments about the companies’ behavior will be
expected and thus given little confidence that it is their true motive. On the other
hand, a person giving critical comments about the company might reveal their true
motive because it is unexpected.
This is whether the person performs a behavior in distinctive and various situations,
context and environment or only in a specific one. If he performs the same behavior
in all kinds of situations then his attribute is dispositional, if he only does the
behavior in a certain situation then it is situational. A professor that gives good
office hours only during his office hours and then doesn’t give a shit about his
students after that is a situational attribution example. If he gives office hours all the
time, helps student in class and let’s student call him for help is an example of
A good rating professor is a good example of leniency rater. He always to perceive
the performance good and thus tend to always give good ratings.
A bad professor is a good example of harshness because he always rates people
strictly or badly. These type of people always perceive performance ineffective.
Is always viewing people as middle ground in terms of performance so professors
always giving average grade to all his students are committing this error.
These tendencies are usually from experience for example, a managers will be more
harshness rating if all his employees were always too good. Halo effect
The rater relies on characteristic traits that he considers personally important to
rate the subject. A student might rate his teacher A only because he is nice but not
because he evaluates well nor giving exam back on time, etc.
This error occurs when a rater gives biased rating to a person only because he finds
that he relates to him or has similar characteristics. For example, a firm executive
might give a promotion to an average employee because he feels like they both came
the same path; from going working class to climbing up to upper class.
Stereotypes and Workforce Diversity
A stereotype might lower the performance of the social group because they feel like
they are treated with the stereotype and their actions will actually confirm these
stereotypes. An example is a black American not being able to maximize his
performance in the SAT score because of the stereotype that black people are
stupid, which will make him more anxious.
Stereotype of the ideal employee
An interviewer might compare the person that he’s interviewing with the stereotype
of the perfect applicant. This can be good but only if the interviewer knows exactly
what the perfect applicant’s characteristics consists of.
The interviewers tend to put more value on the early impressions of the applicant
after the interview; looking back at what the applicant first responded to his
questions, behaved, etc. The problem is that the final decision will not be
proportional as the interviewer weights the first impression more than the
characteristics the applicant showed throughout the whole interview.
Negative information is weighted more
An interviewee’s positive information is weighted less and interviewer weights the
negative information more. This will cause an undue final decision. This is due to the
fact that interviewers are aware that the applicants will typically show the best
image and so they can’t rely too much on the positive information. Additionally,
interviewers might be weighting negative information more because they get more
negative feedbacks from bad hiring and don’t receive any from good ones “why did
you hire this idiot”. Contrast effect
An interviewer might perceive an applicant weaker than what he actually is because
he interviewed two very strong applicant before him and he is only an average
applicant. The interviewer’s view on a current applicants are affected by the
applicants that he interviewed before
What are values?
A general tendency to perceive things as something we like or dislike. Values are
motivational because it makes us pursuit something or try to avoid it. Values are not
specific however; it is very general. Values will not specifically predict a behavior for
example, a person that embraces capitalism will not determine how he will behave
towards a homeless person on the street on day.
Generational Differences in Value
There are stereotypes about different values each generation has but they are not
Traditionalists: More honest, work ethics
Baby Boomers: Optimistic, workaholics
Generation X: Cynical, self motivated, autonomy
Generation Y: Confident, social, demanding
While research shows that these generations have more similarities than
differences, there are some true facts such as:
Generation X and Y are more autonomy, demanding of promotion wanting to
balance life and social, less loyal than boomers.
Research also shows that although most of these generations share values, they
might perceive it differently such as both X, Y and boomers value respect but
boomers refer it as being deferred while it’s more being listened to for generation X
Cultural Differences in Values
Work centrality is how much do people value their work as something that should
be part of their life. Japanese people scored the highest in