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Midterm

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Department
Administration
Course
ADM2336
Professor
Silvia Bonaccio
Semester
Fall

Description
Perception The way we make sense and interpreted the information given to our senses such as touch, smell, taste, sight, etc. We might be given the best pay in the firm but think our pay is low because we don’t know our surrounding or even know our surrounding but perceive it as low compared to the CEO. Perceiver Our experience, emotion and needs affect our perception. Our past experience gives us expectation on situations or people. Take for example a survey from fortune 500, women, non Caucasian men and women felt that race and gender caused barrier in promotion way more than Caucasian men. This is probably because they’ve experienced such barrier more than Caucasian men. The Target We like to interpret things and give it some meaning. When the target is ambiguous (more than just one interpretation), it is more susceptible to interpretation and addition. Just because we have more information about one target, doesn’t mean we will know about it more accurately. Similarly, if we assign minority workers to a prejudice manager thinking he will know more about them, doesn’t mean that he will change his views on them. The Situation The context of the situation can change the perception of the target. When a boss screams at an employee before a promotion, the employee might perceive it differently than if he screamed at him on a normal day. Social Identify Theory A theory that says that we form perception of ourselves based on our characteristics (Our personal unique characteristics such as interests, abilities, etc) and social category such as race, physical traits, sports team, etc. Primary and Recency Effects Primary effect is the first impression that seems to last very long in a relationship. What you portray yourself in the first time with a boss will tell him that you are like that for a very long time. On the other hand the recency effect states that some people value the final impression the most. For example, a final good contract might excuse a whole year’s bad sales. Reliance on Central Traits Some people rely on central traits when they first encounter people. They look for specific attributes or characteristics in the person they are interacting with in which he has specific interest. It could be physical interest, intellectual interest, etc. There has been evidence that more attractive people and taller people do better in job performance and get more promotions. Implicit personality Theory When we tend to associate one personality trait with another such as thinking that a hard worker is supposed to be honest as well or thinking that a smart person would be unfriendly or arrogant. Projection Thinking that others have the same perception as you. People sometimes think that others think like them with the same thoughts or feelings. An honest manager might think that his employees are honest too and find out that stocks are missing. This can work as a self-defense too such as stealing because they think that others are stealing too. Stereotyping Some people automatically assumed a set of characteristics of other people because of their social identity such as race, age, gender, etc. They follow a step which is distinguishing their category (blacks), giving characteristics for that category (black dude is dumb) and then thinking everyone that falls into that category has those characteristics (all black dudes are dumb). Attribution What makes a person behave in such way? Dispositional Attribution He has a specific unique characteristic and his behavior is driven by that and therefore a person’s behavior reflects the true personality of that person. Situational Attribution It is external factors or cues that drives the behavior of a person such as mood, bad weather, etc. To determined whether the behavior is from a situational attribution or dispositional attribution we look at 3 types of cues. Consistency Cues Consistency cues looks at a person’s true motives therefore it is a dispositional attribution. Consistency is how often and consistent does the person repeat his behavior. If a professor often gives opened welcomed and friendly office hours he will be seen has a nice fellow as opposed to if the behavior is inconsistent then it will be a situational attribute. Consensus Cues This is how a person’s behavior is unique compared to others. Is this behavior in the norm, is it normal and is it repeated by other people usually? This tells the dispositional attribute of a person. Take for example an interview about big companies. A person giving good comments about the companies’ behavior will be expected and thus given little confidence that it is their true motive. On the other hand, a person giving critical comments about the company might reveal their true motive because it is unexpected. Distinctiveness Cues This is whether the person performs a behavior in distinctive and various situations, context and environment or only in a specific one. If he performs the same behavior in all kinds of situations then his attribute is dispositional, if he only does the behavior in a certain situation then it is situational. A professor that gives good office hours only during his office hours and then doesn’t give a shit about his students after that is a situational attribution example. If he gives office hours all the time, helps student in class and let’s student call him for help is an example of dispositional attribute. Leniency A good rating professor is a good example of leniency rater. He always to perceive the performance good and thus tend to always give good ratings. Harshness A bad professor is a good example of harshness because he always rates people strictly or badly. These type of people always perceive performance ineffective. Central tendency Is always viewing people as middle ground in terms of performance so professors always giving average grade to all his students are committing this error. These tendencies are usually from experience for example, a managers will be more harshness rating if all his employees were always too good. Halo effect The rater relies on characteristic traits that he considers personally important to rate the subject. A student might rate his teacher A only because he is nice but not because he evaluates well nor giving exam back on time, etc. Similar-to-me effect This error occurs when a rater gives biased rating to a person only because he finds that he relates to him or has similar characteristics. For example, a firm executive might give a promotion to an average employee because he feels like they both came the same path; from going working class to climbing up to upper class. Stereotypes and Workforce Diversity Stereotype threat A stereotype might lower the performance of the social group because they feel like they are treated with the stereotype and their actions will actually confirm these stereotypes. An example is a black American not being able to maximize his performance in the SAT score because of the stereotype that black people are stupid, which will make him more anxious. Stereotype of the ideal employee An interviewer might compare the person that he’s interviewing with the stereotype of the perfect applicant. This can be good but only if the interviewer knows exactly what the perfect applicant’s characteristics consists of. Primacy effect The interviewers tend to put more value on the early impressions of the applicant after the interview; looking back at what the applicant first responded to his questions, behaved, etc. The problem is that the final decision will not be proportional as the interviewer weights the first impression more than the characteristics the applicant showed throughout the whole interview. Negative information is weighted more An interviewee’s positive information is weighted less and interviewer weights the negative information more. This will cause an undue final decision. This is due to the fact that interviewers are aware that the applicants will typically show the best image and so they can’t rely too much on the positive information. Additionally, interviewers might be weighting negative information more because they get more negative feedbacks from bad hiring and don’t receive any from good ones “why did you hire this idiot”. Contrast effect An interviewer might perceive an applicant weaker than what he actually is because he interviewed two very strong applicant before him and he is only an average applicant. The interviewer’s view on a current applicants are affected by the applicants that he interviewed before Chapter 4 What are values? A general tendency to perceive things as something we like or dislike. Values are motivational because it makes us pursuit something or try to avoid it. Values are not specific however; it is very general. Values will not specifically predict a behavior for example, a person that embraces capitalism will not determine how he will behave towards a homeless person on the street on day. Generational Differences in Value There are stereotypes about different values each generation has but they are not especially true. Traditionalists: More honest, work ethics Baby Boomers: Optimistic, workaholics Generation X: Cynical, self motivated, autonomy Generation Y: Confident, social, demanding While research shows that these generations have more similarities than differences, there are some true facts such as: Generation X and Y are more autonomy, demanding of promotion wanting to balance life and social, less loyal than boomers. Research also shows that although most of these generations share values, they might perceive it differently such as both X, Y and boomers value respect but boomers refer it as being deferred while it’s more being listened to for generation X and Y. Cultural Differences in Values Work Centrality Work centrality is how much do people value their work as something that should be part of their life. Japanese people scored the highest in
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