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Notes Midterm 1 - 4 chapters.docx

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Silvia Bonaccio

Chapter 1: What is Organizational Behaviour? • Individual outcome = job performance and organizational commitment • Individual mechanisms = job satisfaction • OB: Field of study devoted to understanding explaining and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations • Human resources management: Field of study that focuses on the applications of OB theories and principles in organizations • Strategic management: Field of study devoted to exploring the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization’s profitability. • Classical Approach: • Scientific management: Using scientific methods to design optimal and efficient work processes and tasks (Frederick Tayor). Encouraged with financial incentives • Bureaucracy: An organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its members through a strict chain of command, formal rules and procedures, high specialization, and centralized decision making (division of labour, hierarchy, formal rules, decisions = at top of the organization). Max weber. No specific work processes, but the entire organization. (division of labour, specialization, strict command, rules) xzdse434 • (when ppl got that ppl matters more than just organizational structure itself) Human relations movement: Field of study that recognizes that the psychological attributes of individual workers and the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behaviours • Contemporary management theory • NO ONE BEST UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLE • Integrative Model of Organizational Behaviours: P.6 • Individual Outcomes: job performance and organizational commitment • 2 employee goals: Perform their jobs well and remain members of an organizational they respect • 2 managers’ goal for employees: maximize their job performance and retain these employees for a significant amount of time • Individual outcomes = OB goals • Individual mechanisms: They directly affect Job performance and Organizational commitment. Include job satisfaction: what employees feel when thinking about their jobs and doing they day-to-day work. Stress: reflect employees’ psychological responses to job demands that tax or exceed their capacities. Motivation: captures the energetic forces that drive employees’ work effort. Trust, justice, and ethics reflect the degree to which employees feel that their company conducts business with fairness, honesty, and integrity. Learning and decision making: how employees gain job knowledge and how they use that knowledge to make accurate judgments on the job. • Individual characteristics and group mechanisms: factors that improve individual mechanisms. Hoe these personal attributes relate to job performance and organizational commitment. • Organizational mechanisms: individuals and groups function within an organizational context • Does OB really matter?: help keep product good over the long term. • (Why OB affect organizational) Resource-based view: A model that argues that rare and inimitable resources help firms maintain competitive advantage • #1 A resource is more valuable when it is rare (short supply). Good people are rare. • #2 A resource is more valuable when it is inimitable (Incapable of being imitated or copied) • Equipment, products, processes can be copied but good people = much more difficult to copy • 3 reasons why people are inimitable: 1. History: people create a history (pool of experience, wisdom and knowledge that benefits the organization). History can’t be bought (an old company vs. a new one). Position on a new market for example. 2. Numerous small decisions: ppl make many decisions day in and day out. Easy to copy big decisions but not easy to copy small ones. 3. Socially complex resources: people are the source of socially complex resources (culture, teamwork, trust, etc.). These resources cannot be easily copied. Comes from the social dynamics within a given organizational at a given time. • Why OB affects an organization’s profitability: good people are rare and inimitable, so they create a resource that is valuable for creating competitive advantage. OB = good for company performance. Less turnover, more sales, more profit and better firm performances. Higher survival rate. • Good people = valuable resource for companies • No magic bullet, several practices are important and long-term commitment to improve the • Rule of one-eighth: The belied that at best one-eighth, or 12% of organizations will actually do what is required to build profits by putting people first. • ½ of org. don’t believe how they treat their ppl impacts the profit they earn. Or make just one change thinking it will change everything • High job performance depends on employee motivation AND high level of satisfaction, etc. • Predictions must be tested with data • Theory: A collection of verbal and symbolic assertions that specify how and why variables are related, as well as the conditions in which they should (and should not) be related. Tells a story and supplies who, what, where, when and why. Can be built from interviews, observations, research reviews. Used to inspire hypotheses. Must be tested. • The scientific method: theories are used to inspire hypotheses (written predictions that specify relationships between variables. Hoy can tell if hypothesis is supported or not? Analyze the data by examining the correlation (statistical relationship between 2 variable aka r from -1 to 1). Then verification • Correlation: statistical relationship. 2 variables. –r- + or – (0 to 1) • Meta-Analysis: A method that combines the results of multiple scientific studies by essentially calculation a weighted-average correlation across studies (with larger studies receiving more weight) Chapter 2: Job Performance • Understanding one’s performance = critical concern • No end result to determine job performance because some employee goes beyond the minimum, other factors that employee do no control, bad results don’t tell you how to do well • Job performance = behaviour. Results/job performance results = outcomes associated with those behaviours. • Job Performance: Employee behaviours that contribute either positively or negatively to the accomplishment of organizational goals. • 3 categories of job performance/behaviours: Task performance (+), citizenship behaviour (+), counterproductive behaviour (-) • Task Performance: Employee behaviours that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces. Description of a job (tasks, duties, etc.). Explicit obligations to receive compensation. • 1. Routine task performance: Well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable task demands or normal routine (e.g. plane seatbelts) • 2. Adaptive task performance (adaptability): Thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task demands • 3. Creative task performance: Ideals or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful • How identify task performance behaviours? By conducting a • Job analysis: Process by which an organization determines requirements of specific jobs (aka identifying task performance behaviours) 1. A list of activities involves in the job is listed 2. Each element is rated by subject matter experts 3. The activities with high rates are retained and used to define task performance • When org. can’t use job analysis, they use : • National Occupational Classification: National database of occupations in Canada, organizing over 30,000 job title into 520 occupational group descriptions (database that gov. created to help describe jobs) • Citizenship behaviour: Voluntary employee behaviours that contribute to organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place. Going the extra mile. Might be rewarded or not • 2 categories: • 1) Interpersonal citizenship behaviours: Going beyond normal job expectations to assist, support, and develop co-workers and colleagues • Helping: Assisting co-workers who have heavy workloads, aiding them with personal matters, and showing new employees the ropes when they are first on the job • Courtesy: Sharing important information with co-workers (matters that are relevant to them) Interpersonal • Sportmanship: Maintaining a positive attitude with co-workers through good and bad times. No whining or complaining because it is contagious • Interpersonal CB more important when employees work in small groups or teams. Contagious. Good impact • 2) Organizational citizenship behaviours: Going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization and being loyal to it. Benefits larger org. • Voice: Speaking up to offer constructive suggestions for change, often in reaction to negative work event. Trying to change bad rules and policies. • Civic virtue: Participation in company operations at a deeper-than-normal level through voluntary meetings, readings, and keeping up with news that affects the company. • Boosterism: Positively representing the organization when In public • More good citizens = higher output, higher revenue, less food waste, better operating efficiency, etc. • Good points: quantity and quality = higher, higher revenue, etc. • 3) Counterproductive behaviours: Employee behaviours that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment. • A)Property deviance: Behaviours that harm the organization’s assets and possessions • A.1)Sabotage: Purposeful destruction of equipment, organizational processes, or company products • A.2) Theft: Stealing company products or equipment from the organization. • B) Production deviance: Intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output • B.1) Wasting resources: Using too many materials or too much time to do little work • B.2) Substance abuse: The abuse of drugs or alcohol before coming to work or while on the job • C) Political deviance: Behaviours that intentionally disadvantage other individuals • C.1) Gossiping: Casual conversations about other people in which the facts are not confirmed as true • C.2) Incivility: Communication that is rude, impolite, discourteous, and lacking in good manners • D) Personal aggression: Hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees • D.1) Harassment: Unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks from a colleague • D.2) Abuse: Employee assault or endangerment from which physical and psychological injuries may occur. Rd • 3 points: 1. If you engage in one type of counterproductive behaviour, you’ll engage in other 2. It is relevant to any job 3. Surprising which employee engage in counterproductive behaviours • Good performer: good at job, engages in citizenship behaviours, and no bad behaviours • How organizations use job performance information to manage employee performance? • Management by objectives: A management philosophy that bases employee evaluations on whether specific performance goals have met. (met with managers and develop objectives measurable and specific) • Behaviourally anchored rating scales: Use of examples of critical incidents to evaluate an employee’s job performance behaviours directly. Taking average value across all dimensions • 360-degree feedback: A performance evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, co-workers, and the employees themselves. (from anyone who could have first hand knowledge) more balanced examination of performance. Problems: which source is most correct, raters might be biased • Forced Ranking: A performance management system in which managers rank subordinates relative to one another. (vitality curve) Problems: hypercompetitive • Social networking system: employee upload goals, managers monitor info and give feedback. • Vitality curve p.44 Chapter 3: Organizational commitment: emotionally comparison • Consultants are always moving. To create sense of appurtenance and no loose them (keep them as employees in the organization): creates activities, special programs, benefits, etc. • Cause of withdrawal = commitment felt by individual • Retention of employees • Imagine personally raining and investing on an employee then she/he leaves for a competitor • Withdrawal inked with the level of commitment • To change employee it costs lot of money • Skilled employee
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