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Final Exam Notes

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CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR Organizations a consciously coordinated social unit composed of a group of people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals examples schools charities sports teams etcOrganizational behavior a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals groups and structure on behaviour within organizations its purpose is to apply such knowledge toward improving an organizations effectiveness Basic OB model and the challenges at each level a Challenges at the individual level Individual differences Job satisfaction Motivation Empowerment managers asked to share more of their power with their employees giving employees more responsibility for what they do Behaving ethically ethics study of moral values or principles that guide our behaviours and inform us whether actions are right or wrongb Challenges at the group level Working with others Workforce diversity mix of people in organizations in terms of gender race ethnicity disability sexual orientation age demographic characteristics such as education and socioeconomic status also generational mixc Challenges at the organizational level Use of temporary contingent employees Improving quality and productivity productivity performance measure including effectiveness achievement of goals and efficiency ratio of effective work output to the input required to produce the work Developing effective employees Organizational citizenship discretionary behaviour that is not part of an employees formal job requirement but that nevertheless promotes effective functioning of the organization ex Staying late helping others etcPutting people first people first strategiesHelping employees with worklife balance Creating positive work environmentcreates competitive advantageGlobal competition Managing and working in a multicultural worldBuilding blocks of OBa Psychology science that seeks to measure explain and sometimes change the behaviour of humans and other animalsb Social psychology focuses on peoples influence on one anotherc Sociology study the social system in which individuals fill their roles studies people in relation to their social environment or cultured Anthropology study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities mainly focus on cultures and environments OB looks at consistencies behaviour is generally predictable and the systematic study of behaviour is a means to making reasonably accurate predictions OB looks beyond common sense Systematic study looking at relationships attempting to attribute causes and effects and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidenceResearch methods in OB a Field studies reallife organizationsb Laboratory studies simulated and controlled settingsc Case studies indepth studies of single situationd Survey studies questionnaires and interviews in sample populationse Metaanalysis statistics that pool results of different studies OB takes a contingency approach considers behaviour in the context in which it occursUbuntu SouthAmerican concept that emphasizes group wellbeing and social harmonyFundamental of OB1Considers multiple levels of an organization individual group and organizational2Built from the wisdom and research of multiple disciplines3Takes a systematic approach to the study of organizational phenomena it is researchbased4 Takes contingency approach to the consideration of organizational phenomena recommendations depend on the situation CHAPTER 2 PERCEPTION PERSONALITY AND EMOTIONSPerception process by which individuals organize and interpret their impressions in order to give meaning to their environmentThe world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally importantManage peoples perceptions and you will manage their behaviors Factors influencing perception The situation time work setting social setting The perceiver attitudes experience motives expectations and interestsThe target object being perceived novelty size motion background sounds and proximity Attribution theory when individuals observe behavior that seem atypical they seek to find out whether it is internally or externally caused after observing the persons behaviour we rely on three rules about behaviour to decide whether the cause is attributed to internal or external causesi Distinctiveness considers whether the individual act similarly across a variety of situations High seldom external cause Low frequently internal cause ii Consensus considers if everyone faced with a similar situation responds in the same way how often other people do this in similar situations High frequently external cause Low seldom internal causeiii Consistency considers whether the individual has been acting in the same way over time how often the person did this in the past High frequently internal cause Low seldom external causePerception errors a Attributions can get distorted Fundamental attribution error tendency to underestimate external factors and overestimate internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of othersSelfserving bias tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while blaming failures on external factorsb Selective perception peoples selective interpretation of what they see based on their interests background experience and attitudes c Halo effect drawing a general impression of an individual on the basis of a single characteristic d Contrastrecency effect concept that other people often influence our reaction to one person we have recently encountered ex Evaluation of candidate in job interview can be distorted as a result of their place in the interview schedulee Projection attributing ones own characteristics to other people managers may see people as more homogenous than they really are f Stereotyping judging someone on the basis of ones perception of the group to which that person belongs Heuristics judgment shortcuts in decisionmaking Prejudice an unfounded dislike of a person or group based on their belonging to a particular stereotyped groupg Central tendency tendency to avoid extreme judgmentsh Perceptual defense process of screening out shutting down ex Not acknowledging your boyfriend cheating on youi Implicit person theories when you know a person has a certain characteristic you tend to interpret their behavior in a certain way Power of perception Selffulfilling prophecy or Pygmalion effect concept that proposes a person will behave in ways consistent with how he or she is perceived by others expectations may become reality Personality the stable patterns of behaviour and consistent internal states that determine how an individual reacts to and interacts with others Personality tests are useful in hiring decisionsPersonality determinants
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