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adm2336 chp1-4.doc

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CHAPTER 1 OB and ManagementWhat are organizationsOrganizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effortSocial inventionsOB is about understanding people and managing them to work effectivelyGoal accomplishmentOB is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to changeGroup effortOB is concerned with how to get people to practise effective teamwork What is organizational behaviourThe attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizationsWhy study organizational behaviourIts interesting important and makes a difference Interesting because its about people and human natureImportant because what happens in organizations often has a profound impact on people in and outside the organizationMakes a difference because organizations can no longer achieve a competitive advantage through the traditional sources of success such as technology regulated markets access to finance resource and economies of scale Today the main factor that differentiates organizations is their workforce or human capitalGoals of organizational behaviourPredicting OBex when people will make ethical decisions create innovative products or engage in unacceptable behaviour Explaining OB ex why people are less motivated satisfied or prone to quit ManagingOB ex acquire allocate and utilize physical and human resources to accomplish goals Management the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others Early thoughts concerning managementClassical view high specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decision making Scientific management Frederick Taylors system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasksBureaucracy Max Webers ideal type of organization that includes strict chain of command detailed rules high specialization centralized power and selection and promotion based on technical competence Hawthorne studies Research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment Results 1The experimenter effect the constant variations to workplace environment to please workers showed them that upper management cared and therefore provided mental stimulation that was good for morale and productivity2The social effect separating the workers in the experiment from the rest gave them a special bond between each other and that also increased productivity Human relations movement A critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocate management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needsContemporary ManagementThe Contingency ApproachContingency approach an approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation What do managers do Interpersonal RolesFigurehead role serve as symbols rather than active decision makersLeadership role selecting mentoring rewarding and disciplining employeesLiaison role maintaining horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization
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