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Organizational Behaviour NotesADM2336Rami AlasadiChapter 1 Organizational Behaviour and ManagementWhat are Organizations Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effortSocial InventionsCoordinated presence of people not necessarily thingsThe field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectivelyGoal AccomplishmentVirtually all organizations have survival as a goal The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to changePeople have to oBe motivated to join and remain in the organizationoCarry out their basic work reliably in terms of productivity quality and serviceoBe willing to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skillsoBe more flexible and innovativeGroup EffortOrganizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goalsIn the field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to practise effective teamworkWhat is Organizational BehaviourOrganizational behaviour refers to the attitudes and behaviours of individual and groups in organizations Productivity absenteeism turnover and job satisfactionThe field of organizational behaviour involves the systematic study of A and BWhy Study Organizational BehaviourOrganizational Behaviour is InterestingOrganizational behaviour is importantOrganizational Behaviour makes a differenceGoals of Organizational BehaviourPredicting Organizational BehaviourExplaining Organizational BehaviourManaging Organizational BehaviourEarly Prescriptions Concerning Organizational BehaviourFor many years experts have been interested in organizations were concerned with prescribing the correct way to manage an organization to achieve goals Two basic views classical view and human relations viewThe classical View and BureaucracyAcquire their experience in military settings mining operations and factories that produces everything from cars to candyIncludes Henri Fayol James D Mooney and Lyndall UrwickTended to advocate very high specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decision makingScientific Management Fredrick Taylors system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasksBureaucracy has the following qualitiesoA strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single superioroCriteria for selection and promotion based on impersonal technical skills rather than nepotism or favouritismoA set of detailed rules regulations and procedures ensuring that the job gets done regardless of who the specific worker isoThe use of strict specializations to match duties with technical competenceoThe centralization of power at the top of the organizationThe Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy Began with the Hawthorne Studies research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of western electric near Chicago in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustmentHuman relations movement a critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needsCritique of bureaucracyoStrict specialization is incompatible with human needs for growth and achievementoStrong centralization and reliance on formal authority often fail to take advantage of the creative ideas and knowledge of lower level members oStrict impersonal rules lead members to adopt the minimum acceptable level of performance that the rules specify oStrong centralization causes employees to lose sight of the overall goals of the organization This is the red tape mentalityContemporary ManagementThe contingency ApproachPointed out the critical role of control and coordination in getting organizations to achieve their goalsThe effectiveness of a leadership style if contingent on the abilities of the followersContingency approach an approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situationWhat do Managers doManagerial RolesInterpersonal roles Establishing and maintain interpersonal relations Symbols of their organization rather than active decision makersLeadership role managers select mentor reward and discipline employeesLiaison role managers maintain horizontal contacts inside and outside of the organizationInformational RolesVarious ways managers receive and transmit informationMonitor role managers scan the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current performance and to keep themselves informed of new ideas and trendsDisseminator role managers send information on both facts and preferences to othersSpokesperson role concerns mainly sending messages into the organizations eternal environmentDecisional RolesEntrepreneur role managers turn problems and opportunities into plans for improved changesDisturbance handler role managers deal with problems stemming from employee conflicts and address threats to resources and turfResource allocation role managers decide how the deploy time money personnel and other critical resourcesNegotiator role managers conduct major negotiations with other organizations or individualsManagerial Activities4 basic types of activitiesRoutine communication this includes the formal sending and receiving of information and the handling of paper workTraditional management planning decision making and controlling are the primary types of traditional managementNetworking networking consists of interacting with people outside of the organization and informal socializing and politicking with insidersHuman resource management this includes motivating and reinforcing disciplining and punishingmanaging conflict staffing and training and developing employeesManagerial AgendasAgenda settingoInformal and unwrittenoConcerned with people issuesoLess numerical than most strategic plansoWideranging informal discussions with a wide variety of peopleNetworkingoWide formal and informal network of key people inside and outside of the organizationoProvided managers with information and established cooperative relationships relevant to their agendasAgenda implementationoUsed networks to implement the agendas High degree of informal interaction and concern with people issues that were for the managers to achieve their agendasManagerial MindsExperienced managers use intuition in several waysTo sense that a problem exists
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