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ADM2336 Midterm 2 review.docx

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ADM2336 Midterm 2 reviewChapter 5 StressIn Canada 62 of main source of stress is workStress The psychological response to demands when there is something at stake for the individual and when coping with these demands would tax or exceed the individuals capacity or resourcesFeeling positive upbeat ability to think clearly ability to work effectively ability to regulate behaviour resource intangibleStressors Demands that cause the stress response STRESSORSTRESSSTRAINStrains Negative consequences of the stress response visible effects of stressWhy some employees more are stressed than othersTransactional theory of stress A theory that explains how stressful demands are perceived and appraised as well as how people respond to the perceptions of appraisalsPrimary appraisal Evaluation of whether a demand is stressful and if it is the implications of the stressor in terms of personal goals and wellbeing Does this demand cause me to feel stressedSecondary appraisal How do I cope with this stressorBenign job demands Job demands that are not appraised as being stressfulTypes of stressorsHindranceChallengeWorkRole conflictTime pressureRole ambiguityWork complexityRole overloadWork responsibilityDaily hasslesSexual harrasmentNonworkWorkfamily conflictFamily time demandsNegative life eventsPersonal developmentFinancial uncertaintyPositive life eventsWhether approach focuses more Whether approach manages the situation or ones emotionson behaviour or cognitionHindrance stressors Stressors that tend to be appraised as thwarting progress toward growth achievement and achievement Stressful demands that are perceived as hindering progress toward personal accomplishments or goal attainment These tend to trigger negative emotions such as anger and anxiety Example dealing with equipment breakdown or unhappy customers Has little to no benefit to the employeeChallenge stressors Stressors that tend to be appraised as opportunities for growth achievement and goals Managing additional responsibilities or higher workloads has a longterm benefit in that it helps build the employees skills Stressful demands that are perceived as opportunities for learning growth and achievement Often trigger positive emotions such as pride and enthusiasmWork Hindrance StressorsRole conflict others having differing expectations of what an individual needs to do in a roleRole ambiguity A lack of direction and information about what needs to be done in a roleRole overload An excess amount of demands on an employee preventing him or her from working effectivelyDaily hassles Minor daytoday demands that interfere with work accomplishmentWork Challenge StressorsTime pressure The sense that the amount of time allotted to do a job is not quite enoughWork complexity The degree to which job requirements tax or just exceed employee capabilitiesWork responsibility The number and importance of the obligations that an employee has to othersNonWork Hindrance StressorsWorkfamily conflict A form of role conflict in which the demands of a work role hinder the fulfillment of the demands in a family role or vice versaNegative life events Events such as a divorce or death of a family member that tend to be appraised as a hindranceFinancial uncertainty Uncertainties with regard to the potential for loss of livelihood savings or the ability to pay expensesNonWork Challenge StressorsFamily time demands The amount of time committed to fulfilling family responsibilitiesPersonal development Participation in activities outside of work that foster growth and learningPositive life events Events such as marriage or the birth of a child that tend to be appraised as a challengeHow people cope with stressorsSecondary appraisal When people determine how to cope with the various stressors they faceCoping Behaviours and thoughts used to manage stressful demands and the emotions associated with the stressful demandsProblemFocusedEmotionFocusedBehavioural methodsWorking harderEngaging in alternative activities Seeking assistanceSeeking supportAcquiring additional resourcesVenting angerCognitive methodsStrategizingAvoiding distancing and ignoringSelfmotivationLooking for the positive Changing prioritiesin the negativeReappraisingBehavioural coping Physical activities used to deal with a stressful situation Example working faster coming in late returning home from international assignment early
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