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CHAPTER 1Organizational Behaviour the attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations How the management organizes the organization How the external environment affects the organizational behaviour Goals of OBPREDICTING organizational behaviour and eventsEXPLAINING OB and events in organizationMANAGING manipulating OBThe Classical Viewadvocates a high degree of specialization of LABOUR COORDINATION AND CENTRALIZED DECISION MAKINGScientific Management Frederick Taylors system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasksThe Hawthorne Studies adjusting the work conditions to see how the workers productivity will increaseBureaucracy Max Webers ideal type of organization that includesStrict chain of commandSelection and promotion criteria based on technical competenceDetailed rules regulations and proceduresHigh specializationCentralization of power at the top of the organizationThe Human Relations Movement advocates more people oriented and participative styles of management that catered more to the social and psychological needs of employeesThe movement called forMore flexible systems of managementThe design of more interesting jobsOpen communicationEmployee participation in decision makingLess rigid more decentralized forms of control Contemporary ManagementThe Contingency ApproachThe general answer to many of the problems in organizations is it dependsDependencies are contingenciesThe contingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manageAn appropriate management styles depends on the demands of the situationCHAPTER 2 LearningLearning a relatively permanent change in behaviour as a result of practice or experience The practice or experience that prompts learning stems from an environment that provides feedback concerning the consequences of behaviourWhat do employees learnPractical skillsIntrapersonal skillsInterpersonal skillsCultural awarenessOperant Learning TheoryThe subject learns to operate on the environment to achieve certain consequencesOperantly learned behaviour is controlled by the consequences that follow itIt is the connection between the behaviour and the consequence that is learnedReinforcement StrategiesFixed ratioVariable ratioFixed intervalVariable intervalCHAPTER 3PerceptionThe process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order and meaning to the environmentPeople base their actions on the interpretation of reality that their perceptual system provides rather than on reality itselfWe are limiting the interpretation to the senses that we are limited to We never perceive reality we interpret what we seeFactors that influence perceptionexhibit 31Bruners model of the perceptual processexhibit 33Perceptual Errors1Perceptual defenceTendency for the perceptual system to defend the perceiver against unpleasant emotionsPeople often see what they want to see and hear what they want to hearOur perceptual system works to ensure we do not see or hear things that are threatening2Selective perception AttentionPerceivers do not use all of the available cues and those they use are given special emphasisPerception is efficient but this can aid and hinder perceptual accuracyThe tendency for the target to be perceived in the same way over time and across situationsThe tendency to select ignore and distort sues so that they fit together to form a homogenous picture of the target3Primacy and Recency EffectsA perceptual error in which
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