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Chapter 1What are Organizationssocial inventions for accomplishing common goals through group efforts3 important elements social intervention goal accomplishment survival and growth and group effortalways write it depends on an examWhat is Organizational BehaviourThe attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizationsOB analyses these attitudes and behaviours and provides insight about how to managechange themProductivity absenteeism turnover and job satisfactionThree goals of OB predictinganalysis explaininganalysis and managingaction attitudes and behavioursEarly Prescriptions Concerning ManagementDONT NEED TO KNOW ANYTHING IN GREENExperts attempted to prescribe the correct way to manage an organization and achieve its goals and came up with two views1Classical view and bureaucracy2Humans relations viewThe Classical ViewOccurred in the early 1900s which means they thought up this view while working in military settings mining operations and factories The classical view advocates a high degree of specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decision makingEach department tended to their own affairs with centralized decision making from upper management providing coordination To maintain control this view suggested that managers have few workers expect for lowlevel jobs Scientific management A system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialisation and standardization of work tasks Frederick Taylor creator or scientific management supported that idea of written instructions to clearly define work procedures and encourages breaks for maximum efficiency He also said that management aught to specialize their jobs based on what they did best Standardization A framework of agreements to which all relevant parties in an industry or organization must adhere to ensure that all processes associated with the creation of a good or performance of a service are performed within set guidelines This is done to ensure the end product has consistent quality and that any conclusions made are comparable with all other equivalent items in the same classBureaucracy an ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command detailed rules high specialization centralized power and selection and promotion based on technical competence In the 1900s most management was done by intuition and nepotism and favoritism was high So bureaucracy was useful it said that1A strict chain of command in which each member reports to only a single supervisor2Selection and promotion must be based on impersonal technical skills and not favoritism 3A set of rules and regulations that ensures the jobs gets done no matter who is doing the job4Strict specialization to match duties with technical competence5The centralization of power at the top of the organizationThe Human Relations MovementAdvocates a more peopleoriented style of management that catered more to the social and psychological needs of employeesThe movement called for1Less strict specialisation to incorporate human needs for growth and achievements2Strict impersonal rules lead to the adoption of minimum acceptable level of performance when higher performance levels are possible 3More flexible systems of management4The design of more interesting jobs5Open communication6Less rigid more decentralized forms of control so as to take advantage of the ideas of lower level members who are closer to the customer Contemporary Management the Contingency ApproachThe general answer to many of the problems in organizations is it dependsDependencies are called contingenciesThe contingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manageAn appropriate management styles depends on the demands of the situationSome Contemporary Management Concerns1Diversity local and globalTodays new entrants to the labour force will be women visible minorities aboriginal people and people with disabilities People with disabilities with
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