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University of Ottawa

1Organizational Behaviour Book Notes Chapter 1 Learning Objectives 1Define organizations and describe their basic characteristics Organizationsocial inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort Social inventionscoordinated presence of people or a group of people Goal accomplishment Group effortorganizations depend on interaction and coordination among people to accomplish their goals 2Explain the concept of organizational behaviour and describe the goals of the field Organizational Behaviourthe attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change iCertain behaviours are necessary for survival and adaptation 1they have to be motivated to join and remain in the organization 2carry out their basic work reliably in terms of productivity quality and service 3be flexible to continuously learn and upgrade their knowledge and skills and 4be flexible and innovative The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to practice effective teamwork The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with explaining differences between successful and unsuccessful companies and using these explanations to improve organizational effectiveness and efficiency Organizational behaviour is important to managers employees and consumers and understanding it can make us more effective managers employees or consumers Goals of organizational behaviour Predicting explaining and managing Analysis followed by action is what organizational behaviour is all aboutPredicting Organizational Behaviour Predicting helps us anticipateie the ability to anticipate makes it easier to know when our friends might get angry when our professors will respond favorably to an assignment etc However being able to predict organizational behaviour does not guarantee that we can explain the reason for the behaviour and develop an effective strategy to manage it Explaining Organizational Behaviour Predicting and explaining are two separate things The ability to understand and explain the behaviour is the prerequisite for effectively managing it Explaining an event is much more difficult than predicting thembecause there could be more than one reason for the cause of the event ie somebody quitting from their job could be due to discrimination poor pay 2is bored Managing Organizational Behaviour If behaviours could be predicted and explained it can often be controlled or managed If we truly understand the reasons for highquality service ethical behaviour or anything else we can often take sensible action to manage it effectively 3Define management and describe what managers do to accomplish goals Managementis defined as the art of getting things accomplished in organizations Managers acquire allocate and utilize physical and human resources to accomplish goals 4Contrast the classical viewpoint of management with that which the human relations movement advocated Classical viewpoint and Bureaucracy An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labour intensive coordination and centralized decisionmaking Advocated by experienced managers or consultants Early 1900smain people Henri Fayol James D Mooney Lyndall Urwick This viewpoint tended to advocate a very high degree of specialization of labour and a very high degree of coordination Each to tend to its own affairs with centralized decision making from upper management providing the coordination Frederick Taylor father of scientific management Frederick Taylors system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks also contributed to the classical school Max Webber is another father of the classical school of managementhe made the term bureaucracy Max Webbers ideal type of organization that included a strict chain of command detailed rules high specialization centralized power and selection and promotion based on technical competence famous Human Relations Movement A critique of classical management and bureaucracy that advocated management styles that were more participative and oriented toward employee needs This movement began with the research conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric by Elton Mayo in the 1920s and 1930s that illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment Concerned with the impact of fatigue rest pauses and lighting on productivity and work adjustment The research showed that there is more of an impact to the effects of psychological and social processes on productivity and work adjustment The people involved included Chris Argyris Alvin Gouldner and Rensis Likert This movement advocated more peopleoriented styles of management that catered to the employees The difference between these two movements is simplethe first one focused on efficiency and effectiveness too much Instead of looking after the employees doing the work they focused on making sure the work was done face and made sure that it was of good quality The human relations movement moved past just the organization and found that if an employees psychological needs are catered to then the worker will produce effective productsservices and prove to be efficient with some exceptions 5Describe the contemporary contingency approach to management This approach was created to resolve the tension between the two previous approaches The contemporary contingency report is an approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage and that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation 6Explain what managers dotheir roles activities agendas for action and thought processes 3Managerial Roles Henry Mintzberg conducted an indepth study of the behaviour of several managers and concluded with the following roles of a manager Informational Roles concerned with the various ways the manger receives and transmits information Monitor scans the internal and external environments of the firm to follow current performance and to keep himself informed of new ideas and trends Disseminator managers send information on both facts and prefrences to others Spokesperson mainly sending messages into the organizations external environment Interpersonal Roles expected behaviours that have to do with establishing and maintaining interpersonal relations Figurehead serves as a symbol of his or her organization rather than an active decision maker Leader manager selects mentors rewards and disciplines employees Liaison manager maintains horizontal contacts inside and outside the organization Decisional Roles deals with decision making Entrepreneur manager turns problems and opportunities into plans for improved changes Disturbance handler the manager deals with problems stemming from employee conflicts and addresses threats to resource and turf Resource Allocate managers decide how to deploy time money personnel and other critical resources Negotiatormanagers conduct major negotiations with other organizations or individuals Managerial Activities Created and discussed by Fred Luthans Richard Hodgetts and Stuart Rosenkrantz There are four basic types of activities Routine Communicationsthis includes the formal sending and receiving of information as in meetings and handling paperwork Traditional managementplanning decision making and controlling are the primary types of traditional management Networkingnetworking consists of interacting with people outside the organization and informal socializing and politicking with insiders Human resource managementThis includes motivating and reinforcing disciplining and punishing managing conflict staffing and training and developing employees Managerial Agendas John Kotter created the following categories after studying behaviours from several general managers Agenda SettingKotters managers all developed agendas of what they wanted to accomplish for the organization NetworkingKotters managers all established a wide formal and informal network of key people both inside and outside the company Agenda Implementationthe managers used the network to implement the agendas Managerial Minds Herbert Simon and Daniel Isenberg have explored how managers think There are many observations that they foundhowever the most important one is managerial intuition Isenbergs research presents that intuition is used by experienced managers in many ways To sense that a problem exists
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