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HR Midterm review - Donia

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Magda Donia

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HR review Winter 2013 th Lecture 1 (Jan 17 ) Chapter 1: Strategies, trends, and challenges in HRM 3 Strategic goals of HRM:  Efficiency and productivity  Compliance with legal requirements  Fairness to all employees o If they are well treated they will perform better Key terms in HR:  Human resources: The people in the Org  HR strategy: Any intentional plan or use of the people to accomplish your org goals – best to take a future oriented approach to tackle issues  HR tactic: The particular HR policy used to accomplish specific goals  HRM: Encourages professionals to acknowledge that employees are resources – keeping their commitment and loyalty is important (involve, encourage, motivate) Impact of HRM: How HR plays a role in achieving your standards and goal  Human capital: Something that adds economic value to the company o Training o Experience o Judgment o Intelligence o Relationships o Insight  Behaviour of human capital o Motivation o Effot  Org performance: o Quality o Profitability o Customer Satisfaction  When hiring, use situational behaviour questions in the interview, evaluate their interpersonal skills and technical know-how  After hiring: o Ensure a comfortable environment o Ensure a harmonious relationship with unions o See how you can help employees perform better Key HR challenges:  Environmental: things that happen outside the Org and affect you over which we have no control  Organizational: Controlled elements within the organization (Unions, downsizing, restructuring)  Individual: Match jobs with correct people to avoid wasting time and money – take Or culture into consideration History of HRM  Scientific management: Concern for production  Human relations movement: Concern for people  Human resources movement: Concern for people and productivity  Human resources personnel used to be very detached from employees and focused only on the productivity of the Org  Due to unions, gov’t began enforcing laws about how to treat people  If one department goes down, so does the rest of the Org Responsibilities of HR departments:  Legal Compliance  Analyzing and designing jobs: make sure that the job descriptions clearly reflects the tasks to be completed  Recruiting and Hiring  Training and Development  Managing performance  Total rewards  Employee/labour relations  HR policies  Broad knowledge: Don’t need to be an expert in any field but must have a basic knowledge Operation vs strategic HR  Responsibilities have changed over time  HR personnel are responsible for managing employees o If they have an administrative role, they are experts and advise on improvement  Improve, refine, adjust  Administrative role: Reactive to something that has happened – then a solution is considered  Strategic role: Proactive – looks at preventing incidents before they happen Strategic HR Choices:  Work flows: Efficiency or Innovation  Staffing: Internal or External o Promote from within (better considered) o Or hire externally (fresh ideas, new perspectives)  Employee Separation: Voluntary or Layoffs o Layoffs vs employees quiting  Performance appraisal: Custom or uniform  Training and development: Individual or Team o Training: more geared towards immediate problems o Development: more long term (Joining management)  Compensation: Fixed or Variable o Not only about pay, includes financial services and benefits o Must first consider base salary (hourly?) o Variable depending on jobs and credentials  Employee relations: Top-down or bottom-up o Formal relationtship (top-down) or Open door policy (bottom-up) o Suggestion box, toll free numbers o MUST have a harmonious relationship with unions  Union substitution: Employees already have everything in place and do not need a union  If you make negotiations difficult, union reps will come back stronger  Employee rights: Discipline or Prevention o Prevention: Rules and consequences for everything – too formalised o Disciplinary: Always make sure to give verbal warnings, the written warningsm the suspension the firing  International management: Company of Local Culture o Who to hire, fire, discipline, approach, etc… o Company or culturally based o There is no best way but there are options  Depending on the type of company in which you work you will see exactly what you’ll be able to do  Defender strategy: people can complete your jobs but must keep cost at a minimum, how can you be more affordable compared to competitors  Differentiation strategy: How can you be different from your competitors? Money not an issue. Encouraged to try different things  Up to you as an HR person to decide what strategy is best Responsibilities of HR supervisors  Defining jobs, Forecasting HR needs  Interview and select candidates  Train, coach, and develop employees  Appraise performance  Recommend pay increases and promotions  Communicate policies and comply with laws  Provide motivational environment  #of employees needed and # of hours to be worked  Referent power will help get a better deal Chapter 2: The legal context of HR  Not in need of all the legal info to be in HR  Employee legislation required  The gov’t role is to make sure there is shared responsibility between the Org and employees  Every legal requirement focuses on the Charter of Rights and Freedoms  Must be able to protect the Org from liability and discrimination + ensure fair treatment Legal Framework of HRM:  Federally regulated: Canada Post, airlines, telecommunications, railways, TV stations  Provincially regulated: ALL other businesses o Minimum working age may differ by province  Employment insurance and pension plans are the same across Canada  As are regulations about Sexual harassment Legislation in Canada:  Charter of Rights and Freedoms: 1982 – protects and guarantees all the basic rights of Canadians  Canadian Human Rights Act: 1998 – Prevents any sort of discrimination  Employment standards legislation: 1970s – outlines some of the minimum requirements to which employees are entitled  Employee Equity Act: Proactively hiring employees belonging to the 4 groups o Minorities o Disabled o Women o Gays  Pay Equity Act: Should be rewarded the same if they are performing the same or similar job  Official languages act: 1988 – equal rights given to francophones and Anglophones – may not refuse a candidate due to background  PIPEDIA: Mostly for federal Orgs, private business (2004) protects employee rights and information, employer cannot shar your information without written consent o Emails are legal documents that can be used in court Prohibited grounds of Discrimination protected by Canadian Human Rights Act  Pardoned conviction  Race or colour  National/ethnic Origin  Religion  Age  Sexual orientation  Marital And Family status  Disability Equity in Employment opportunity:  Discrimination: Any behaviours that demeans or humiliates the person – treating someone differently due to personal attributes  Direct discrimination: When a person is treated differently due to sexual beliefs, religion, or ethnic origin  Indirect Discrimination: When an apparently neutral specification, criteria or practice would disadvantage people on the grounds of racial or ethnic origin, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. Employers Role:  Bona fide occupational requirement:  Duty to Accommodate: duty to accommodate employees needs to a point of undue hardship (wheelchairs, etc)  Preventing Harassment: Help employees understand harassment o What will you do for victims? o What will offenders experience?  Valuing Diversity: Create an environment and make people understand the no one is superior or inferior – simply diverse (race, political beliefs, age) Harassment: something he/she is doing that he/she should not be doing  Physical Assault  Unnecessary physical contact  Verbal abuse/threats  Unwelcome invitations/requests  Unwelcome remarks/jokes  Leering  Display pornographic/racist picture  Embarrassing practical jokes  Condescension/undermining Remedies for Human Rights Violations  Compensation for o Lost wages o General damages and expenses o Pain and humiliation  Restoration of denied rights  Written letter of apology  Mandatory training session/workshops  Required employment equity program Employment Equity program implementation steps 1. Obtaining senior management commitment and support 2. Data collection analysis 3. Employment systems review 4. Plan development 5. Implementation 6. Monitoring/Evaluation/Revising Employee rights: Aids in making a pleasant environment for workers  The right to know: About know or foreseeable hazards in the workplace  The right to participate: In identifying and resolving job-related safety and health concerns  The right to refuse: Dangerous Work Occupational Health and Safety:  Internal Responsibility System  Workplace Health and Safety committees  Bill C-45: 2004 – amendment to the criminal code – you are the sole person responsible for your actions Diversity management  A broader/more inclusive employment equity  A set of activities designed to o Integrate all employees in a multicultural workforce o Use diversity to enhance and Orgs effectiveness  Make sure employees are aware of what diversity is  No stereotyping in any way Characteristics of Effective Diversity Programs  Celebrate diversity  Diversity training  Top management commitment  Support groups/ mentoring programs  Diversity audits: Ability to maintain a diverse workforce – must make changes if not so  Management responsibility and accountability  Inclusive and representative communications Chapter 3: HRM and technology How you can analyze the workflow or your Org as well as the jobs Not all orgs use latest technology: just need to find the best fit Generally a paper based system is the first step, then mainframes, and now more interactive software Technology will help retain human resources, reduce administrative burden, strategic task focus More than 140 HR systems Human Resources Information System  Used for: o Employee administration o Recruitment o Time and attendance o Pension administration o Employment equity o Performance evaluation o Compensation/benefits o Org management o Health and safety o Labour relations o Payroll interface  Used to simplify and automate tasks which helo you work faster and easier  Legal compliance becomes easier  Integrated systems help you gather, store, and utilize Human resources  Store fundamental info  Must keep track of who you’re hiring, firing, writing up  Help decide how to improve job design and org structure Selecting and implementing HRIS  Adoption phase: (Needs analysis): How much technology are you using? o Company background o Management o Technical o HR o Pricing  Look into financials, and managements notions about technology, HR abilities, projected growth  Vendor and software selection*  Implementation phase: (project teams selected): Use the technology to see how people react o Data conversion o Configuration o System testing o Privacy and security  Apply in just on dept first  Test in payroll, or electronic training  Test how beneficial is it to you  Clarify ethical guidlines  Institutionalization phase: Train all individuals on technology o Training  Limited access to employees  Train ALL employees  Must manage this change Electronic HR (e-HR)  Employee self-service (ESS) o Org must-have so employees can access to information  Management self-service (MS) o Used my management o No time wasting when attempting a decision regarding employees o Ensures less chance of error o Not very popular  Enterprise-Wide systems (ERP) o Systems used to monitor and support business related activities o To make sure all employees are doing their jobs o Supports all systems and monitors how things are done  Stand-alone systems o For HR staff exclusively  HR specialty software o Used only for specific services in HR o Not very common Changes in HR role in IT-enabled Org  Decreased HR transactional activities  Increased client/customer focus  Increased strategic activities o The use of technology reduces the burden on the administrative role o Good for improving relationships with employees and customers Trends in HR and technology  Technology trends o Workforce analytics: research and statistical softwares  Outsourcing o Do what will work best for you not everyone else o Payroll/benefit admin are the most expensive parts of HR  Determining HR’s effectiveness o Pre-2008 there was no trend for evaluating performance to determining a measurable output of the HR dept Chapter 4: Analyzing work and designing jobs Work-flow analysis requires people to look at what is happening on the job Make sure you understand if there are changes in the job or not Make sure to refine and update job descriptions Work-flow analysis  Raw inputs o What materials, data, and information are needed? Are the goals clear?  Equipment: o What special equipment, facilities, and systems are needed  Human resources: o What competencies, knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics are needed?  Activity o What tasks are required in the production of the output?  Output: o What product info, or service is provided? How is the output measured? o How does work add value to your c
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