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MIS review.doc

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University of Ottawa
Nour El- Kadri

Management information systems Review Information systems: Any computer based tool that people use to work with information and that supports the information and information-processing needs of the organization. • Can be used as an enabler of business success • Can help in decision making but cannot make decisions • “Managers do not make bad decisions, they make good decisions based on bad information” • Have been around formally only for about 40 years Goals: • Reduce costs • Improve customer satisfaction • Competitive advantages • Generate growth • Streamline supply chain • Global expansion Metrics: things that measure levels of satisfaction, inputs • Customer frequency • Customer comments • Retention rates • Response rates • Only collect metrics that will help you, don’t waste time and money Porters 5 forces***: • Rivalries • Threats • Substitute goods • Buyer power: build loyalty programs (shoppers drug mart) • Supplier power Management information systems: The function that plans for, develops, implements, and maintains Is hardware, software and applications that people use to support the goals of an organization • Is a business function similar to accounting, finance, operations, and HR Data: Raw facts that describe the characteristic of an event Information: Data converted into a meaningful and useful context Knowledge: Information that can be enacted upon (actionable information) IS resources: People use Information systems to work with information and achieve the goals set by the organization • Information technology • Information • People IS Cultures: • Information functional o No sharing of info between departments, use info against other departments • Information sharing o Improves performance and builds trust between departments to run more efficiently • Information inquiring o Search for information to better understand the future and align themselves with current trends and directions • Information discovery o Open to new insights, and seek ways to attain a competitive advantage, how can we deal with this crisis? Strategic IS positions • CIO (Chief information officer) o Oversees all uses of IS and ensures the strategic alignment of IS with business goals and objectives o Owns everything to do with information, should be well versed in management o Roles:  Manager  Leader  communicator • CTO (Chief technology officer) o Responsible for ensuring thr throughput, speed, accuracy, availability , and reliability of IS • CKO (Chief knowledge officer) o Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distributing the organizations knowledge • CPO (Chief privacy officer) o Deals with taking care of the personal information of all those in the organization o Responsible for ensuring the ethical and legal use of Information • CSO (Chief security officer) o Responsible for ensuring the security of information systems Efficiency IS metric: Measures the performance of the information system itself including throughput, speed, and availability Effectiveness metric: Measures the impact IS has on the business processes and activities including Benchmarks: A process of continuously measuring system results, comparing those results to optimal system performance (benchmark values), and identifying steps and procedure to improve system performance (No more than 100 complaints per week) Efficiency IS metrics focus on IS and include • Throughput • Transaction speed • System availability • Web traffic • Response time Chapter 2: Business Processes Competitive advantage: A product or service that an organizations customers place a greater value on than a similar offering from a competitor First mover advantage: Occurs when an organization is the first to move into a market (Amazon with internet selling) Porter’s strategies*** • Cost leadership (low cost, broad market) (toyota, honda) • Differentiation (High cost, broad market) • Focused strategies (High/low cost, focused market) (hummers, corvettes, Alienware) Thomas Friedman – The World is Flat • Outsourcing • Open-sourcing • Collapse of the Berlin wall • Netscape • Workflow software • Off-shoring • Supply chaining • In-sourcing • In-forming • Steroids Decision making systems • Executive information systems – lots of analytics • Artificial intelligence – Expert systems, Neural networks, Genetic Algorithms • Transaction processing systems - • Decision support systems – lots of analytics Decision levels****: • Transactional – fine grained • Analytical – Coarse • Analysts > Managers > Executives Decision support systems (DSS): a way to model information for managers and business professionals, gives you the info you want (can predict sales as well) Online Analytical processing (OLAP): manipulate information in a way to support and guide the decision making process for long term planning Executive information systems: A specialized Decision support system that supports senior level executives within the organization (more general and coarse) Sensitive analysis: The study of the impact that changes in one or more parts of the model have on the other parts of the model What if analysis: checks the impact of a change in an assumption on the proposed solution (hypothetical questions) Goal seeking analysis: finds the inputs necessary to achieve a goal as such desired by the organization Dashboards: Collect and display many different forms of information is one place Customer facing processes: Result in a product or service directly dealing with the customer Back office processes: don’t directly deal with the customer, essential to management of the business Business processes: Standardized set of activities tha accomplish a specific task, processions a customers order Business Process Redesign (BPR): the analysis and redesign of workflow within and between enterprises • Purpose is to make all business processes the best in their class Business process modeling: Is the activity of creating a detailed flow chart of process map of a work process showing its inputs, tasks, and activities, in a structured sequence Business process model: Is a graphic description of a process, showing the sequence of process tasks, which is developed for a specific purpose and from a selected viewpoint Business process management: Integrates all of the organizations business processes to make individual processes more efficient Chapter 3: The Internet and E-business Digital Darwinism: Implies that organizations who cannot adapt to the new demands placed on them for surviving the information age are doomed to extinction Disruptive tech: A new way of doing things that initially does not meet the needs of existing customers (inventions) Sustaining Tech: Produces an improves product customers are eager to buy (innovation) Business disruptors: • The internet was one of the biggest disruptors • Organizations must be able to transform as markets, economic environments, as technologies change • Focusing on the unexpected allows organizations to capitalize on growth from a disruptive technology Internet affected: • Travel • Entertainment • Financial services • Retail • Automobiles Evolution of internet • Began as a military communications system developed by the department of defense • “Computer networks that pass information from one to another using common computer protocols” • Protocol: Standards that specify the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission World Wide Web (WWW): Global hypertext system that uses the internet as a transport mechanism Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP): The internet standard that supports the exchange of information on the WWW Internet impact on information: • Easy to compile • Increased richness • Increased reach • Improved content Web 2.0: A set of economic, social, and technological trends that collectively form the basis for the next generation (we live in we 2.0) Providing information: Internet service provider (ISP): provides individuals with access to the internet Online service provider (OSP): Offers an extensive array of unique Web services Application service provider (ASP): Offers access over the web to systems that would otherwise be located on original computers Common IP Services: • Web hosting • Hard disk storage space • Availability: 24/7 online business • Support Service level agreements***: Define the specific responsibilities of the service provider and set the customer expectations. VERY important in business, constant download speed of 1 MB/s at ALL times E-business: the conducting of business on the internet including not only buying and selling but also serving customers and collaborating with business partners • Comprise all aspects of the supply chain E-commerce: buying and selling of goods on the internet • Subset of E-business E-marketplace: interactive business communities providing a central market where multiple buyers and sellers can engage in e-business activities • B2B, B2C, C2C, C2B • Click and mortar businesses • Pure-play businesses (only online) E-government: Involves the use of strategies and technologies to transform government by improving the delivery of services and enhancing the quality of interacting between the citizen-consumer within all branches of the government Electronic Marketing/Sales • Online add • Pop-up • Associate program: businesses generate commissions and royalties together • Viral marketing: uses websites and users to pass on the message • Mass customization • Personalization: when a website can personalize ads to certain people • Blog • RSS: really simple syndication – web feed used to broadcast up-to-date content • Podcasting Search Engine Optimization: A set of methods aimed at improving the ranking of a web site in search engine listings (First pager) Spamdexing: deceptive techniques to ensure that you are among the top 10 hits Maintenance, repair, and operations: Materials necessary for running an organization but do not relate to the company’s primary business activities Customer service: the business process where the most human contact occurs between buyer and seller • Internet drastically changed customer service, relatively no human contact • Protection of privacy is a primary issue (credit card info, addresses) Intermediaries: Agents, softwares, or businesses that bring buyers and sellers together that provide a trading infrastructure to enhance e-business Re-intermediation: Using the internet to reassemble buyers, sellers, and other partners in the traditional supply chain in new ways Web site metrics: Data that tracks the exact pattern of a consumer’s navigation through the website. Visitor metrics (who were they, where they from?), Exposure metrics, Visit metrics (how long were they there), hi metrics • # of page views • Pattern of pages visited • Length of stay on the web
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