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ADM2372 Final review.docx

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Department
Administration
Course
ADM2372
Professor
Nour El- Kadri
Semester
Winter

Description
ADM2372 Final review Chapter 7: Databases and Data Warehouses Organizational data and information  Data are raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event  Information is data converted into a meaningful and useful context  Information granularity refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract) The Value of transactional data and Analytical information  Transactional Data: Sales receipts, Airline tickets, Packing slips  Analytical information: Product statistics, Sales projections, Future growth, product trends  Are all store in the Database Value of timely data and information  Real time Data: Is immediate The Value of Quality Data and Information METRICS  Accuracy: Are the values correct? For example, is the name spelled correctly? IS the collar amount properly recorded?  Completeness: Are there any values missing? For example, is the address complete including street, city, province and postal code?  Consistency: Is aggregate or summary information in agreement with detailed information? For example, do all total fields equal the true total of the individual fields?  Uniqueness: Is each transaction, entity, and event represented only once in the information? Are there duplicate customers?  Timeliness: Is the information current with respect to the business requirements? IS information update weekly, hourly, daily? The value of Quality Data and Information 1. Missing information (no first name) 2. Incomplete date (No street) 3. Inaccurate data (Invalid e-mail) 4. Probable duplicate data (Similar names, same address, same phone number) 5. Potential wrong data (Are the phone and fax number the same or is it an error?) 6. Incomplete Data (Missing area codes) The four primary sources of low quality information include: 1. Online customers intentionally enter inaccurate information to protect their privacy 2. Data or information from different systems have different entry standards and formats 3. Call center operators enter abbreviated or erroneous information by accident or to save time 4. Third party and external information contains inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and errors Relational database fundamentals  Information is everywhere in an organization  Information is store in databases o Database: Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (Transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)  Databases include: o Hierarchical Database model: Information is organized into a tree-like structure (using parent/child relationships) in such a way that it cannot have too many relationships o Relational database model: Stores information in the form of logically related two- dimensional tables Entity, Entity classes, and Attributes  Entity: A person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored o The rows in each table contain the entities o In figure 7.5 CUSTOMER includes Dave’s Sub Shop and Pizza Palace entities  Entity class (Table): A collection of similar entities o In figure 7.5 CUSTOMER, ORDER, ORDER LINES, DISTRIBUTOR, and PRODUCT are entity classes  Attributes (Fields, columns): Characteristics or properties of an entity class o The colums in each table contain the attributes o In figure 7.5 attribute for CUSTOMER include  Customer ID  Customer name  Contact name  Phone number Keys and Relationships  Primary keys and foreign keys identify the various entity classes (tables) in the database o Primary key: A fields (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table o Foreign Key: A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables Increased flexibility  A well designed database should: o Handle changes quickly and easily o Provide users with different views o Have only one physical view  Physical view: Deals with the physical storage of information on storage device o Have multiple logical views  Logical view: Focuses on how users logically access information Increased Scalability and Performance  A database must scale to meet increased demand while maintaining acceptable performance levels o Scalability: refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands. Must keep performance exquisite no matter how many records you have o Performance: Measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction Reduced redundancy  Databases reduce information redundancy o Redundancy: The duplication of information or storing the same information in multiple places o Often 2 databases are in use in case one fails  Inconsistency is one of the primary problems with redundant information Database Management systems:  DBMS: Software through which users and application programs interact with a database Data-driven websites  Data driven websites: is an interactive web site kept updated and relevant to the needs of its customers  Most database providers made their databases XML friendly, and eventually XML became an inherent part of the database  Advantage: Anybody on any application can read from the database A history of Data Warehousing  A central repository where the whole corporation’s data is in one place  Data warehouses extend the transformation of data into information  In the 90s executive became less concerned about the day-to-day business operation and more concerned about overall business functions  The data warehouse provided the ability to support decision making without disrupting the day- to-day operations  Advantage: Help us look beyond data as being raw data. Helps us extend data into information Data warehouse fundamentals:  Data warehouse: A logical collection of information gathered from many different operation databases, supports business analysis activities and decision making tasks  The primary purpose of data warehouses is to aggregate information throughout an organisation into a single repository for decision-making purposes  Data Mart: Contains a subset of data warehouse information  Contributed-to by all departments and put into data warehouse  Easy way to guide decision making Multidimensional Analysis  Databases contain information in a series of two-dimensional tables  In a data warehouse and data mart, information is multidimensional; it contains layers of columns and rows o Dimension: A particular attribute of information  Cube: A common term for the representation of multidimensional information o Easy to decide on whatever piece of information you’re looking for o Can go from3, to 4, to 6 dimensions but they must be VERY defined Information Cleansing or Scrubbing  An organisation must maintain high-quality data in the date-warehouse  Information cleansing or scrubbing: A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information Business intelligence  Business intelligence: Information that people use to support their decision-making efforts  Often used with data warehousing  Information that managers and executives use In the decision making process  Business intelligence helps to get to the root of the problem and take action in a short period of time  Latency: The time between an event and action being taken  The more time taken to take action, the less valuable the company will be Data Mining:  Data mining: The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data  To perform data mining users need data mining tools o Data-mining tools: uses a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and infers rules that predict future behaviour and guide decision-making  Common forms of data mining analysis include: o Cluster analysis o Association detection o Statistical analysis Cluster analysis:  Cluster analysis: A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the members of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible  CRM systems depend son cluster analysis to segment customer information and indentify behavioral traits Association detection:  Reveals the degree to which variable are related and the nature and frequency of these relationships in the information o Market basket analysis: Analyzes such items as websites and checkout scanner information to detect customer’s buying behaviour and predict future behaviour by identifying affinities among customer’s choices of products and service Statistical analysis:  Performs such functions as information correlations, distribution, calculation, and variance analysis o Forecast: Prediction made on the bases of time-series information o Time-series information: Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency Chapter 8: Helping organizations Access, Share and Use information Teams, Partnerships, and alliances:  Organizations create and use teams, partnerships, and alliances to: o Undertake new initiative o Address both minor and major problems o Capitalize on significant opportunities  Organizations create teams, partnerships, and alliances both internally and externally with employees and other organizations  Organizations try to capitalize on the cultures they have to gather knowledge and use it  Usually this is done though team, alliances, and partnerships  Corporations also collaborate with each other to bring products to the market (Samsung and google) o Came together to build Android software  Collaboration system: Supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of information o Ranges from accounting, distribution, production, and marketing o Groupware, content management systems, knowledge management systems, workflow management software Collaboration***  Collaboration system: An IT-based set of tools that supports the work of teams by facilitating the sharing and flow of information  Collaboration solves specific business tasks such as telecommuting, online meetings, deploying applications, and remote project and sale management  Two categories of collaborations o Structured collaboration (Process collaboration): Involves shared participation in business processes such as workflow in which knowledge is hardcoded as rules o Unstructured collaboration: Includes document exchange, shared whiteboards, discussion forums, and email Content management systems:  Provides tools to manage the creation, storage, editing, and publication of information in a collaborative environment  CMS marketplace includes o Document management system (DMS) o Digital asset management system (DAM) o Web content management system (WCM)  DMS focuses on the whole process (from capturing to accessing document) o Great for the financial industry o Useful for text and databases  DAM: Documents are well structure, and access/analysis/publication is very easy o Other forms of information: Graphs, videos, photos  WCM: Add another layer to DMS and DAM. Enable publishing for intranet and extranet o Often help integrate content with online processes  Content management systems are often Open source and available for free  They hide the complexities of the web from users who are not experts in that domain Workflow management systems  Work activities can be performed in series or in parallel and involved people and automated computer systems  Workflow: Defines all the steps of business rules, from beginning to end, required for a business process  Workflow management system: Facilitates the automation and management of business processes and controls the movement of work through the business process  Messaging-based workflow system: sends work assignments through an e-mail system  Database-based workflow system: Stores documents in a central location and automatically asks the team members to access the document when it is their turn to edit the document Knowledge management  Knowledge management (KM): Involves capturing, classifying, evaluating, retrieving, and sharing information assets in a way that provides context for effective decisions and actions  Knowledge management systems (KMS): Supports the capturing organization, and dissemination of knowledge (know-how) throughout and organization Explicit and Tacit knowledge:  Intellectual and knowledge based-assets fall into 2 categories o Explicit knowledge: Consists of anything that can be documented, archived, and codified, often with the help of IT o Tacit knowledge: Knowledge contained in people’s heads  The following are the two best practices for transferring or recreating tacit knowledge o Shadowing: less experiences staff observe more experienced workers to learn how their more experienced counterparts approach their work o Joint problem solving: A novice and expert together on a project Knowledge management and social networking  Finding out how information flows through an organization  Social Network analysis: A process of mapping a groups contacts (whether professional or personal) to identify who knows whom and who works with whom o SNA: provides a clear picture of how employees and divisions work together and cen help identify key experts Enterprise portals What are enterprise portals?  Enterprise portals: Are single-point Web browser interfaces used within an organization to promote the gathering, sharing, and dissemination throughout an enterprise  Web browser interface facilitates navigation of Enterprise Portals via: o Search engine o Hyperlinks to both internal and external resources The Potential of Enterprise portals  Potential of enterprise portals o Facilitate knowledge creation, distribution, and use o Promote collaboration  Portals must be compromised of three distinct areas to be effective o Content space: Provides access to corporate data and information o Communication space: Provides channels for conversations o Coordination space: Facilitates workflow and work routines Factors Affecting Enterprise Portal Adoption and Use  Major factors affecting adoption and use of enterprise portals are not technical in nature  Lesson #1: In terms of information politics, the human struggle over an enterprise portal’s content and functionality can lead to resultant designs that favour certain stakeholder groups rather than address end-user needs  Lesson #2: In terms of the system development process, a perceived slowness in changes to an enterprise portal’s design or information content can lead to user dissatisfaction  Lesson #3A: With respect to information sharing, the provision of protected, secure areas in an enterprise portal to pre-defined individuals or groups can lead to greater exchange or documents and ideas  Lesson #3B: With respect to information overload, the filtering of information within and enterprise portal can lead to greater user acceptance of the system  Lesson #3C: With respect to information access, providing quick and universal access to an enterprise portal can lead to heightened usage  Lesson #3D: With respect to Information control, offer a means to tailor the display and presentation of information on an enterprise portal can increase user satisfaction with the system  Lesson #3E: With respect to attitude towards using an enterprise portal, a positive perception towards and awareness of an enterprise portals functionality can lead to greater user adaptation Factors affecting Enterprise portal Adoption and Use:  Insights from computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) on adoption and use of enterprise portals o Ensure that everyone benefits o Create incentives for use o Promote multiple perspectives o Understand current work practice Chapter 9: Information, Ethics, Privacy, and Security Information Ethics**  Ethics: The principles and standards that guide our behaviours towards other people  Information Ethics: Concerns the ethical and moral issues arising from the development and use of information technologies, as well as the creation, collection, duplication, distribution, and processing of information itself (with or without the aid of computer technologies). Individuals form the only ethical component of Information systems  Issues affected by technology advances o Intellectual property: Something that has to do with patents and trademarks o Copyrights: A way to protect the rights of the producer. Commonly found in authors o Fair use dealing: A copyrighter iten that you can use for non-commercial purposes o Private software: Software that belongs to a specific person or organization. Greatly affected by pirating  Privacy is a major ethical issue o Privacy: The right to be left alone when you want to be, to have control over your own personal possession, and not to be observed without consent. Information pertaining to a specific individual that they don’t want available to the public  A privacy breach for one individual may not be a breach for another o Confidentiality: The assurance that messages and information are available only to those who are authorized to view them. Trusting only certain people with your important documentation (banker, doctor)  One of the main ingredients of trust is Privacy  Primary reasons Privacy issues reduce trust for E-business: o Loss of personal privacy o 37 percent of internet users are “a lot” more inclined to purchase a product on a web site that has a privacy policy o Effective privacy and security would convert more internet users into internet buyers Information has No Ethics  Information does not care how it is used  Information will not stop itself from sending spam, viruses, or highly-sensitive information  Information cannot delete or preserve itself  Information cannot protect itself, you need specific plans to do so Information Ethics in the Workplace:  Systems that don’t respect human dignity  Workplace monitoring is a concern for many employees  Organizations can be held financially responsible for their employee’s actions  The dilemma surrounding employee monitoring in the workplace is that an organization is placing itself at risk if it fails to monitor its employees. However, some people feel that monitoring employees is unethical Monitoring technologies:  Monitoring: Tracking people’s activities by such measures as number of keystrokes, error rate, number of transactions processes, phone surveillance, video surveillance Information privacy:  Information Privacy: Concerns the legal right or general expectation of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when and to what extent, information about them is communicated to others. IT is the biggest challenge with information  It is up to individuals, groups, or institutions to determine privacy within their organizations  Information privacy legislation varies widely across countries o Europe o Canada o The United States Canada  Canada has some of the best privacy policy in the world  Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) is a federal act that applies to all organizations  Types of personal information covered includes: o Pension and employment insurance files o Medical records o Tax records o Security clearances o Student loan applications o Military records Exceptions to PIPEDA  Journalistic, artistic, or literacy purposes o Anything a journalist can obtain, becomes available to the public  Actions clearly of benefit to the individual, or if obtaining permission could infringe on the information’s accuracy  Information, or the disclosure of information aids a legal investigation, or an emergency where lives and safety are at stake  Information disclosure facilitates the conservation of historically important records PIPEDA’s 10 guiding principles******* 1. Accountability: An organization is responsible for personal information under its control 2. Identifying purposes: The purposes for which personal information is collected shall be identified 3. Consent: The knowledge and consent of the individual are required 4. Limiting Collection: The collection of personal information shall be limited to that which is necessary for the purposes identified 5. Limiting Use, Disclosure, and Retention: Personal information shall not be used or disclosed for purposes other than those for which it was collected 6. Accuracy: Personal information shall be as accurate, complete, and up-to-date as is necessary for the purposes for which it is to be used 7. Safeguards: Personal information shall be protected by security safeguards 8. Openness: An organization shall make readily available specific information about its policies and practices 9. Individual access: Upon request, an individual shall be informed of the existence, use and disclosure of his or her personal information and shall be given access to that information 10. Challenging compliance: An individual shall be able to address a challenge concerning compliance Developing information management policies  Organizations strive to build a corporate culture based on ethical principles that employees can understand and implement  E-policies typically include o Ethical compute use policy: Contains general principles to guide computer user behaviour  The ethical computer user policy ensures that all users are informed of the rules and, by agreeing to use the system on that basis, consent and abide to the rules o Information privacy policy: Contains general principles regarding information privacy  The unethical use of information typically occurs “unintentionally” when it is used for new purposes  Guidelines: Adoption and implementation of a privacy policy  Notice  Choice and consent  Information security o Acceptable use policy (AUP): A policy that a user must agree to follow in order to be provided access to a network of the internet  An AUP usually contains a nonrepudiation clause  Nonrepudiation: A contractual stipulation to ensure that e-business participants so not deny (repudiate) their online actions o Email privacy policy: Details then extent to which e-mail messages may be read by others  Organizations can mitigate the risks of email and instant messaging communication tools by implementing and adhering to an e-mail privacy policy o Internet use policy o Anti-spam policy: Simply states that e-mail users will not send unsolicited email or spam o Employee monitoring policy: Explicitly state how, when, and where the company monitors its employees  Be as specific as possible  Always enforce the policy  Enforce the policy in the same way for everyone  Expressly communicate the company reserves the right to monitor employees  Specifically state what will be monitored  Describe the types of information that will be collected  State the consequences for violation  State all provisions that allow for updates  Specify the scope and manner of monitoring for any IS  Obtain written receipt acknowledging that each party understood the policy Information Security  Ensuring that the information is current, up-to-date, and accurate  Those who want to jeopar
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