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ANP1105 Midterm: Midterm #1 Notes

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University of Ottawa
Anatomy and Physiology
Jackie Carnegie

Anatomy Midterm1Notes Topic 1: Structural Organization of the Human Body The Bodys Organization (Ch 1.2) atom: smallest particle of an element with all of the properties of that molecule: the smallest amount of a substance that can exist alone (a combination of atoms) organelle: molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles (basic components of living cells) cell: fundamental structural functional unit of a living thing; cells vary widely in size shape, reflecting unique functions in the body tissue: groups of similar cells that have a common function o epithelium: protection (i.e. skin) o muscle: movement (i.e. skeletal muscle) o connective tissue: structure, connect (i.e. tendons) o nervous tissue: communication (i.e. nerves) organ: structure composed of at least 2 (but usually 4) tissue types that performs a specific function for the body organ system: organs that work closely with one another to accomplish a common purpose Organelles (Ch 3.73.9) nucleus: control center of the cell; contains genetic inheritance for that cell in the form of instructions for all possible proteins the cell can make cytoplasm: fills the space between the nucleus and the plasma membrane plasma membrane: encloses the cell, separating the intracellular fluid from the extracellular fluid; semipermeable The cytoplasm consists of three components: o cytosol: viscous liquid in which the other components are suspended; consists of water plus proteins salts, sugars, other solutes o organelles: structures that carry out the metabolic activities of the cell such as protein synthesis, ATP production, digestion o inclusions: celldependent; include substances that may be storage forms of important molecules or have other functions within the cell; examples include: glycogen granules (found in liver and muscle cells), lipid droplets (especially in fat cells), pigment granules (in skin cells) Three types of cytoskeletal filaments: o microfilaments: made of protein actin (found in muscles, help contract), most cells have actin filaments o intermediate: strong and thicker, cells that need sturdiness (keratin, collagen), help with changing shape o microtubules: can become longer or shorter by adding or removing cells, help with cell division (become shorter), sturdy, move substances within cell
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