ANP1105: MIDTERM NOTES: TOPIC 1: Structural Organization of the
1.1.1: Define; atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system; give an
example of each + localize each in the hierarchy of anatomical structure.
The Structural Organization of the Human Body:
Atom: smallest particle of an element with all of the properties of that element.
a) Diff parts: Electrons, protons and neutrons.
b) Ions are simply charged atoms.
c) Examples: hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
Molecule: the smallest amount of a substance that can exist alone = a combination
a) Examples: h2o, glucose.
Organelle: molecules associate in a specific ways to form organelles = basic
components of living cells.
a) Examples: mitochondria, nucleus, golgi apparatus, endoplasmic reticulum,
Cell: fundamental structural and functional unit of a living thing; cells vary
widely in size and shape, reflecting unique functions in the body.
Tissue: groups of similar cells that have a common function.
a) Epithelium: inner or outer lining (skin).
b) Muscle: movement (cardiac muscles, walking etc).
c) Connective Tissue: filler in between other tissues. (wraps things)
d) Nervous Tissue: function is communication. (speaking, eating, regulating HR)
Organ: structure composed of at least 2 (usually 4) tissue types that perform a
specific function for the body.
a) Examples: liver, intestines, heart, pancreas and skin.
b) The heart: has all 4.
c) Our body takes a bunch of organs that can work together to form organ
Organ System: organs that work closely together with one another to accomplish a
a) Example: Digestive; take in food, break it down, get value out of food.
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1.3: Describe the different tissues of the human body.
1.3.1: define tissue and demonstrate how the organization of cells into tissues contributes
to overall homeostasis.
Tissue: groups of structurally similar cells that perform common/related function.
Individual body cells are specialized; division of labor.
At organ level, cooperation for organ to work as a whole.
Different types so we can divide up different jobs, and if all are working well, so
is the body.
1.3.2: List the 4 primary types of tissues:
Epithelial: covering. Usually all 4 to make up an
Connective: support. organ (heart) Muscle: movement.
Histology: the study of tissues + their cellular organization.
1.3.3: Define + explain epithelial tissue:
Sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity.
Creates boundaries. Ex: air and air sacs of the lung.
1) Covering and lining epithelium.
i) Outer(skin, kidneys)
ii) Inner (lining of digestive system, mouth, hollow organ).
2) Glandular: sweat glands, oil producing glands, endocrine organs.
1) Protection; skin.
2) Absorption: in small intestines, transporters for amino acids, sugars move into
3) Filtration: kidney
4) Excretion: kidney.
5) Secretion: glandular epithelium.
6) Sensory reception: taste buds, olfactory membranes.. smell.
1.3.4: List + demonstrate your understand of 7 special structural charac of epith tiss:
Cellularity: Cell dense layers. Many cells tightly packed.
Specialized Contacts: tight junctions + desmosomes. They need to make a layer
of tissue to respond in a uniform manner.
i) Desmosomes: they snap the plasma membrane together so it is hard to rip
them apart. Tight junctions are also for this reason.
Polarity: apical and basal surfaces; apical surface often specialized such as having
microvilli or cilia. These cells have a certain shape, apical and basal surface and
sides where they attach to one another. Microvilli and cilia maximize surface area.
Basal Lamina: non cellular, underlying supportive sheet of primarily
glycoproteins joined together.
i) Hemidesmosomes: attach the bottom of the membrane to the basal lamina.
ii) Functions: attaching, cells can replace the broken ones, the cross linking
fibrils filter and control what molecules go in contact with the epithelial
Supported by connective tissue:
i) Blood vessels run through the connective tissue. When they need glucose,
etc, they have to come out of the blood stream through the basal lamina.
ii) Basement membrane = basal lamina + underlying reticular CT.
iii) Reticular CT: has a fine meshwork of fibers, that is supportive of small
cells and gives good attachment opportunities. Cancer can produce
enzymes and make their way past the basement membrane.
Innervated but avascular: There are nerve cells but they are avascular(no blood
supply) they are nourished by diffusion.
Regeneration: high regenerative capacity because they are constantly being
damaged so they need to be replaced unlike neurons.
They release products by the apical surface.
1.3.5: Indicate the 2 criteria used to classify epithelial cells: Cell shape: squamous, cuboidal columnar.
i) Squamous: flattened.
ii) Cuboidal: sort of square.
iii) Columnar: taller and thinner.
Layers: simple epithelia, stratified epithelia.
The bottoms are mitotic.
1.3.6: List the 4 types of simple epithelia: indicate primary functions associated with each
+ sample body locations.
Simple Squamous Epithelium: thin(want to be able to move through the cells) and
permeable(in blood vessels you want it to be easy for o2 to move). Filtration,
diffusion. Ex: endothelium and in kidney + lungs.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium: secretion and absorption. Ex: kidney, tubules and
Simple Columnar Epithelium: also digestion and secretion. Ex: digestive tract.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium: A single layer. Ex: respiratory tract where
cilia and mucus secretion are local specializations.
Transitional Epithelium: NOT SIMPLE: lines the bladder, an organ that needs to
stretch and have the ability to change it’s shape. When its filled, apical layers
become stretched. Basal layers are columnar to cuboidal.
1.3.7: Describe the structure of stratified squamous epithelium and give a sample body
Protective role; basal cells cuboidal + under go mitosis to keep regenerating the
layer from below.
Most common example: skin for squamous epithelium + lining of oral cavity +
The apical layers of cells are swept off.
1.3.8: Define: gland, endocrine gland, exocrine gland.
i) Gland: 1+ cells that make and secret a particular product.
ii) Endocrine Gland: hormone producing glands, mucusproducing glands
iii) Exocrine Gland: have ducts(direct passage way), produce enzymes, mucus