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Anatomy and Physiology

Standard anatomical position Body erect feet slightly apart palms forward thumbs away from body Remember that right and left refer to the patient or the cadaver NOT THE OBSERVER 2 Fundamental divisions of bodyAxial parthead body and trunkAppendicular partappendages or limbs attached to axis There are also regional terms that is used to designate specific areas within axial and appendicular part of body PlanesSections There are 3 planes1 Sagittal plane vertical plane that divide body into leftright parts NOT RIGHT AND LEFT HALVES This is because some planes are parasagittal plane Where the cut off is not exactly in the middle In order to have equal halves midsagittal or median plane 2 Frontal plane Coronal vertical plane that divide body into anterior and posterior parts 3 Transverse Horizontal plane horizontal plane that divides body into superior and inferior parts Traverse sectioncrosssection1 more section Oblique sectionplane is cut at an angle Definitions Superior aboveInferior belowAnterior ventral in frontPosterior dorsal behindMedial towards middleLateral away from middleIntermediate between medial and lateralProximal closerDistal furtherSuperficial towards body surfaceDeep away from body surfaceBody cavitiesDorsal posterior Cranial and vertebral cavity Cranial cavity unclosed by skull and houses the brain Vertebral cavity enclosed by the vertebrae and houses the spinal cord Both cavities are very wellprotected Very strong and bonyVentral anterior Thoracic cavity superior and abdominopelvic cavity inferiorThoracic cavity contains 2 lateral pleural cavities lungs and central pericardial cavity heart Thoracic cavity is surrounded by ribs and muscles of chestdecent protection Abdominopelvic cavity two partsSuperiorabdominal stomach intestine spleen livernothing covering themno protectionInferiorpelvic in bony pelvis contain urinary bladder some reproductive organs and rectum Bony pelvis sort of protectsprotection is basicDiaphragm separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities nothing separates the abdominal and pelvic cavitySkinderivatives sweatoil glands hair nailsintegumentary systemStructure of skin2 distinct regionsEpidermis superficial part of skinepithelial layer thick keratinized stratified squamous epitheliumDermis deep part of skinConnective tissuesThere is also the hypodermis known as superficial fascia because it is superficial to the tough connective tissue wrapping of skeletal muscles it consists mostly of adipose tissue not really skin but shares the skins protective functions Contains areolar CT blood vessels adipose tissue store fatAct as shock absorber insulator It thickens when weight is gained It anchors skin to underlying structures with ability to slide Epidermis isnt vascularized dermis and hypodermis is Epidermis gets nutrition from diffusion 4 types of epidermal cellsKeratinocytes majority of epidermal cells Main function is to produce keratinfibrous protein that helps give the epidermis its protective properties The lifespan of keratinocyte is 2545 days Melanocytes spider shaped creates the pigment melanin Found in the deepest layer of the epidermis As melanin is made it is accumulated in the membrane bound granules called melanosomes and brought to the numerous branching processes they are then taken to the nearby keratinocytes and they accumulate on the superficial side of keratinocyte nucleus forming a shield protecting UV rays Tanningtanning produce melanin at a faster rate this is to protect the nucleus from UV rays Melanin is a dark colour Number of melanocytes is the same between people the difference is halflife production rate of melanin etc Langerhans cells also called epidermal dendritic cells star shaped They are macrophages ingest foreign substances activate immune system Migrate to epidermis from bone marrowMerkel cells also called tactile cells at epidermisdermis boundary have disclike sensory nerve endinglike touch receptors The layers of epidermis from deep to superficialStratum Basle attached to dermis consists of single row of stem cellsyoungest keratinocytes It has high mitotic index 1025 of the cells are melanocytes also some Merkel cells are present Stratum Spinosum several cell layers thick Contain web of keratin filaments attached to desmosomes Name reflects when the cell is dried and deadlooks like tiny spiked iron balls Contain keratinocytes and melanin granules Also contain Langerhans cellsmost abundant in this layer
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