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Anatomy review notes for midterm

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University of Ottawa
Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy review notesHomeostasisHomeostasisthe ability of the body to maintain its internal environment within certain limitsUnchanging outer environment body must also change in a dynamic state tooMake sure vital nutrients in blood streamoHeart activity is monitoredblood pressure maintainedoWastes do not accumulateoBody temperatureNervous and Endocrine system make up Homeostatic controlThree parts to controlReceptor somewhere in body that measures stimuli directly and sends it to theControl centre that has a set point that determines the limits that that condition should regularly fall between The stimuli comes in to control centre along afferent pathwayEffector info from control centre along efferent path to effector which controls response to control centres analysis of the stimulus Results of the response feedback to the control causing eitherof the two1 Negative feedbackShuts off original effect of stimulus once the effector has been told to fix the homeostatic imbalanceBody temperature when body is too cold Hypothalamus in brain tells multiple Effectors skin heart muscles vesselsto change to warm the body Once the body is back to regular limit the negative feedback will shut off systemBlood glucoseoToo much glucose in bloodoPancreas control centre causes release of insulinoInsulin makes cells in liver absorb more glucose and store it as glycogen in liver and skeletaloWhen glucose levels resume negative fb stops production of insulin2 Positive feedbackCascadescauses waterfall effect bc conditions are rare when this occursoBirth oxytocin causes contractions to increase and become more powerfuloBlood clottingonce tear in vessel platelets attach and release chemicals to attract more plateletsHomeostatic imbalanceAgingcontrol systems for internal environment become less efficient we are more susceptible to diseaseNegative fb is overwhelmed and positive feedback takes overbecomes destructiveCANCERAutonomic Nervous systemComparison of somatic vs autonomicBoth have motor fibres however there are differencesEffectorsSomaticskeletal muscles for conscious controlAutonomicheart muscles and smooth muscles in organs glandsEfferent pathways and GangliaSomaticoneurons in CNSoextend in spinal chordothick and myelinated motor fibres for rapid transmissionogroup A fibresoNO gangliaAutonomicTwo neuron partoPre ganglionic neuronin CNSoPre ganglionic axon thin lightly myelinatedsends message from pre G neuron to oPost ganglionic neuronsecond motor neuron outside the CNSoPost ganglionic axon thicker no myelinextends to effector organ ie a glandBecause there is little to no myelination the auto is much slower than somatic think of sleep we release melatonin but it takes a while to make us feel very sleepyNeurotransmittersSomaticAch to stimulate excitement in the muscle to contractAutonomichormonesonorepinephrinesecreted by sympathetic fibreoAchsecreted by parasympatheticoDepending on the effector NTs may be excitatory or inhibitorySimilaritiesWhen skeletal muscles are working they require oxygen so autonomic increases heart rate and respirationANS divisionsDual innervationone stimulates body and the other inhibits that action These divions are1 Parasympatheticrest and digestHousekeeping activities like digestionoPerson sitting on toilet after eating while reading a magazineDigestion is occurring so relaxation means that sympathetic isnt interfering with parasymp blood pressure low low heart rateEliminating feces and waste
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