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Learning Objective for Blood Part 2.docx

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Anatomy and Physiology
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Learning Objective for Blood Part 24Hemostasis is the orderly stepwise process for stopping of bleeding IT is regulated by a complex system of activators and inhibitors that maintain blood fluidity and prevent blood from leaving vascular compartments Hemostasis involves vasospasm formation of platelet plug development of firbin clot coagulation clot retraction clot dissolution5Hemostasis requires platelets produced in bone marrow 30 in spleen and released when needed von Willenbrand factor produced by vessels endothelium plasma clotting factors synthesized in liver and use vitamin K naturally occurring anticoagulants ie plasminogen converted to plasmin that digest the fibrin of the clots and prevents inappropriate clot formation inherent properties of blood vessels themselves smoothness of the endothelium vascular neural reflexes and humoral factors cause vessel smooth muscle contractions6Platelets are bits of megakaryocyte membrane containing cytoplasm and various organelles but NO NUCLEUS they are covered with glycocalyx Platelets circulate for 89 days half life is 4 days Their production is stimulated by protein thrombopoietin made by kidneys liver muscle and bone marrow7There are 5 stages to hemostasisaVessel spasmbFormation of the platelet plugcDevelopment of a blood clot as a result of blood coagulationdClot retractioneClot dissolution8Stage 1 vessel spasmaInjury to blood vessel causes vascular smooth muscle in the vessel wall to contract bThis automatically reduces blood flow from the vessel rupturecThromboxan released from platelets causes vasoconstriction9Stage 2 Formation of the platelet plugaVon Willebrand factor released from the endothelium binds to platelet receptorsbThis causes adhesion of the platelets to the exposed collagen fiberscAs the platelets adhere to the collagen fibers on the damaged wall they are activated and release ADP and TXA2
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