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Learning Objectives for Blood Part 1.docx

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University of Ottawa
Anatomy and Physiology

Learning Objectives for Blood Part 13Blood is a specialized type of CT that contains living blood cells called FORMED ELEMENTS and nonliving blood cells called BLOOD PLASMA Blood is slightly alkaline with a pH ranging from 735745 Its temp is approx 38 celsius a little higher than body temp 8 of our body weight is in our blood 56L for males 45L for females4Blood functions as a transport for oxygen carbon dioxide nutrients hormones nitrogenous waste products etc It regulates body temp pH and fluid volume It protect from blood loss and infections using antibodies and compliment proteins5Blood plasma is 90 water and contains solutes like nutrients gases hormones proteins electrolytes and wastes Formed elements consist of erythrocytes leukocytes and platelets eryth and platelets DO NOT DIVIDE6Erythrocytes are small and biconcave cells that do not have nucleus or organelles They contain spectrin protein that gives flexibility to RBC allowing it to change shape and fit through narrow capillaries It is capable of anaerobic metabolism sparing oxygen consumption7Hemoglobin is made up of 4 protein globin subunits which are each bound to the iron binding red HEME PIGMENT Each IRON atom can combine reversibly with one molecule of oxygen There are 4 per hemoglobin molecule and each RBC contains 250 million Hb Each globin consists of 2 alpha and beta polypeptide units Oxyhemoglobin Hb carrying oxygen carbaminohemoglobin Hb carrying carbon dioxide Oxygen binds with heme group carbon dioxide combines with globin part8A table showing standard values for RBC comparing men and women Men have generally higher counts of RBC Hb Hematocrit and overall volumes9Red blood cells are continuously renewed by division of cells in RED BONE MARROW To produce RBCs you need functional hematopoetic stem cells erythropoietin iron folate and vitamin B1210In the diagram shown stem cells use erythropoietin to become erythroblasts Erythroblasts become reticulocytes which become RBCs An RBC can live from 100120 days11A diagram showing erythropoiesis A stem cell or hemocytoblast becomes a committed cell or proerythroblast This becomes an early erythroblast which in phase 1 undergoes ribosome synthesis to slowly become a late erythroblast that is accumulating hemoglobinThis forms a normoblast that ejects its nucleus to become a reticulocyte Over time it becomes an RBC or erythrocyte This process takes 15 days12A diagram further showing RBC development13When cell O2 falls oxygen sensor in kidney and liver release a heme protein which leads to the transcription of EPO erythropoietin 85 90 of EPO comes from kidney An imbalance in homeostasis leads to reduced O2 levels in the blood The kidney releases EPO which stimulate
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