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Anatomy Midterm 1 Study Notes.doc

19 Pages

Anatomy and Physiology
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Levels of Structural Organization pp 34chemical levelsimplest levelatoms combine to form molecules molecules associate in specific ways to form organelles basic components of the microscopic cells Cells are the smallest units of living thingscellular level all cells have common functions but individual cells vary widely in size and shape reflecting their unique functions in the bodysingle cells are the simplest living creatures but in complex organisms the levels of structural organization continuestissue leveltissues are groups of similar cells that have a common function4 basic tissue types in human bodyepitheliumcovers the body surface and lines its cavitiesmuscleprovides movementconnectivesupports and protects body organsnervousprovides a means of rapid internal communication by transmitting electrical impulsesorgan composed of at least 2 tissue types 4 types is more commonperform specific functions for the bodyorgan level extremely complex functions become possibleorgan system levelorgans that work together to accomplish a common purpose make up an organ systemeg heart and blood vessels of the cardiovascular system circulate blood continuously to carry oxygen and nutrients to all body cellsorganismal levelhighest levelrepresents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us aliveCellular Components Definitions pp 8392mitochondria provides ATP power source contain own DNARNARibosomesribosomes the site of protein synthesis free ribosomes and membrane bound ribosomesrough endoplasmic reticulum external surface studded with ribosomes these ribosomes manufacture all secreted proteinsintegral proteins and phospholipids manufacturesmooth endoplasmic reticulum enzymes that catalyze reactions integral proteins forming the membraneGolgi apparatus stacked and flattened membrane sacsmodify package and concentrate proteinslipids before exiting the celllysosomes contain digestive enzymes break down non useful tissuebone perform metabolic actions digest particlesperoxisomes contain oxidasescatalases oxidases detoxify harmful substancescatalases convert free radicals into water once oxidases convert free radicals into hydrogen peroxidemicrofilaments thinnest element of cytoskeleton semiflexible strands of proteinintermediate filaments part of cytoskeleton tough insoluble protein fibres resemble ropecentriole barrelshaped organelles at 90 form basis of cilia and flagellacilia whiplike motile cellular extensions that move substancesflagella projections formed by centrioles with propulsive flagellummicrovilli fine hairlike projections on membranesnucleus genecontaining control centrenuclear membrane double membrane barrier separated by a fluidfilled spacenucleoli ribosomal subunits are producedchromatin consist of flattened histones proteins creates a DNA segmentTissuesgroup of similarly structured cells that perform similar functionsEpithelial Tissuesheet of cells creates boundariesall linings are specializedprotection absorption filtration excretion secretion sensory receptionhas several characteristics ofcellularity high cell densityspecialized contacts tight junctions to perform proper functions hard to break tightly attached to one anotherpolarity apical surfaces possibly attached to lumen have dense microvilli and cilia to increase their surface area and basal surfaces cells firmly attached to belowbasal lamina noncellular underlying supportive sheet of glycoproteins Cells attached protection crosslinks fibres of glycoproteins to be selectively permeablesupported by connective tissue basement membranebasal laminaunderlying reticular connective tissue fine meshworkavascular no direct blood supply nourished by diffusion and concentration gradientregenerative high regenerative capacity due to the need for replacement and high damage rateTypes of Epithelial Cellssimple squamous thin and permeable filtration diffusion smallest thinnest possible cellfound in kidney and lungssimple cuboidal secretion and absorption but allows movement Also direction and movementfound in kidney tubules glandssimple columnar digestion and secretion digestive tract Contain all organellespseudo stratified columnar a single layer cilia and mucus secretion are local specializations respiratory tracttransitional epithelia NOT SIMPLE lines the bladder must stretch and fill The basal layers are columnarcuboidal apical layers become increasingly flattenedsquamous as filling occursstructured stratified squamous undergo mitosis to keep generating layersfound in mouth
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