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ANP1105-Topic 1 Notes.docx

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Anatomy and Physiology
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11Describe the levels of structural organization that make up the human bodyANP1105 Topic 1 Notespp 34Structural Organization of 12Cells summarize the major organelles and structures found in cellspp8396the Human Body 2 lectures11Describe the levels of structural organization that make up the human body 111 Define atom molecule organelle cell tissue organ organ system give an example of each and localize each in the hierarchy of anatomical structure 1Chemical Level Atoms combine to form moleculesaAtoms smallest particle of an element with all the properties of that element Parts include neutrons protons electronsbMolecules the smallest amount of a substance that exist alone a combination of atoms Ex HO CHO261262Cellular Level Cells are made up of moleculesaOrganelle molecules associate in specific was to form organelles basic components of living cells Ex Nucleus MitochondriabCell Fundamental structural and functional unit of a living thing cells vary widely in size and shape reflecting unique functions in the body3Tissue Level Tissues consist of groups of similar cells that have a common function There are 4 types of tissuesaEpithelium pertaining to a primary tissue that covers the body surface lines its internal cavities and forms glandsbMuscle a contractile organ consisting of a special bundle of muscle tissue which moves a particular bone part or substance of the bodycConnective a primary tissue form and function vary extensively Functions include support storage protection and binding connect or separates other tissues and organsdNervous main component of the nervous systembrain spinal cord and branching peripheral nerveswhich regulates and controls bodily functions Composed of neurons4Organ Level Structure composed of at least 2 usually 4 tissue types that preform a specific function for the bodyaEX HEART composed of muscle tissue cardiac muscle contracts pumping blood nervous tissue which conducts the hearts electrical signals to make it contract in a coordinated manner and epithelium tissue mostly from the blood vessels which supply the heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients5Organ System Level organs that work closely with one another to accomplish a common purpose ExaNervous System responds to internal and external changes by activating appropriate muscles and glands Organsbrain nerves spinal cordbUrinary System eliminates wastes from body regulates HO electrolytes and acidbase balance 2of the blood Organs kidney ureter bladder urethra6Organismal Level the human organism is made up of man organ systems12 Cells describe the major structures found in body cells 121 Define the following cytological terms cell nucleus cytoplasm plasma membrane semipermeable Cell structural unit of all living thingsNucleus 1 Control center of a cell contains genetic material 2 clusters of nerve cell bodies in the CNSCytoplasm The cellular material surrounding the nucleus and enclosed by the plasma membrane1Plasma Membrane Membrane composed of phospholipids cholesterol and proteins that encloses cell contents outer limiting cell membraneSemiPermeable A membrane that allows certain substances to pass while restricting the movement of others also called differentially permeable membrane122 Define cytosol organelle cell inclusion list recognize the structure and indicate the functions of each of the following organelles mitochondrion peroxisomes endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus lysosome Cytosol Viscous semitransparent fluid substance of cytoplasm in which other elements are suspendedOrganelle Small cellular structures that preform specific metabolic functions for the cell as a wholeCell inclusion any foreign matter or residual elements of the cytoplasm that are enclosed within a cell They are metabolic products of the cell for example granules or crystalsOrganelleStructureFunctionMitochondriaRodlike doublemembrane Site of ATP synthesis structures inner membrane powerhouse of the cellfolded into projections called cristaePeroxisomesMembranous sacs of The enzymes detoxify a catalase and oxidase number of toxic enzymessubstances The most important enzyme catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxideEndoplasmic SmootMembranous system of Site of lipid and steroid Reticulumhsacs and tubules free of cholesterol synthesis ribosomeslipid metabolism and drug detoxificationRoughMembranous system Sugar groups are attached enclosing a cavity the to proteins within the cistern and coiling through cisterns Proteins are the cytoplasm Externally bound in vesicles for studded with ribosomestransport to the Golgi apparatus and other sites External face synthesizes phospholipids RibosomesDense particles consisting The site of protein of two subunits each synthesiscomposed of ribosomal RNA and protein Free or attached to rough endoplasmic reticulumGolgi ApparatusA stack of flattened Packages modifies and membranes and associated segregates proteins for vesicles close to the secretion from the cell nucleusinclusion in lysosomes and incorporation into the plasma membraneLysosomesMembranous sacs Sites of intracellular containing acid hydrolasesdigestion2
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