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ANP cell structure review.doc

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University of Ottawa
Anatomy and Physiology

Plasma membrane defines the extent of a cell thereby separating two of the bodys major fluid compartmentsthe intracellular fluid within the cells and the extracellular fluid outside cells the cells surface or outer limiting membrane much more than a passive envelope as its unique structure allows it to play a dynamic role in many cellular activitiesMitochondria threadlikelozengeshaped membranous organelles in living cells they squirm elongate and change shape almost continuouslyprovide ATP to the cellthe density of mitochondria in a particular cell reflects that cells energy requirementscontain cristae crests that protrude into the matrix gellike substance within mitochondrion contain their own DNA RNA and ribosomes and are able to reproduce themselves Ribosomes small darkstaining granules composed of proteins and a variety of rRNA each ribosome has 2 globular units that fit together ribosomes are sites of protein synthesissome float freely in the cytoplasm while others are attached to membranes forminga complex called the rough endoplasmic reticulum free ribosomes make soluble proteins that function in the cytosol membranebound ribosomes synthesize proteins destined either for incorporation into cell membranes or for export from the cell ribosomes can switch back and forth between these 2 functions attaching to and detaching from the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum according to the type of protein they are making at a given time Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum studded with ribosomes its ribosomes manufacture all proteins secreted from cellsthus the rough ER is particularly abundant and well developed in most secretory cells antibody producing plasma cells and liver cells which produce most blood proteins known as the cells membrane factory because integral proteins and phospholipids thatform part of all cellular membranes are manufactured here the enzymes needed to catalyze lipid synthesis have their active sites on the external cytosolic face of the ER membrane where the needed substrates are readily available Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum continuous with the rough ER and consists of tubules arranged in a looping network its enzymes all integral proteins forming part of its membranes play no role in protein synthesis but instead they catalyze reactions involved with the following processeslipid metabolism cholesterol synthesis synthesis of the lipid components of lipoproteins in liver cellssynthesis of steroid based hormones sex hormonesabsorption synthesis and transport of fats intestinal cellsdetoxification of drugs certain pesticides and carcinogens in liver and kidneybreakdown of stored glycogen to form free glucose especially in liver cells
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